etd@IISc Community:http://hdl.handle.net/2005/12015-08-04T14:35:21Z2015-08-04T14:35:21ZNonstationary Techniques For Signal Enhancement With Applications To Speech, ECG, And Nonuniformly-Sampled SignalsSreenivasa Murthy, Ahttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/24522015-07-22T10:25:36Z2015-07-21T18:30:00ZTitle: Nonstationary Techniques For Signal Enhancement With Applications To Speech, ECG, And Nonuniformly-Sampled Signals
Authors: Sreenivasa Murthy, A
Abstract: For time-varying signals such as speech and audio, short-time analysis becomes necessary to compute specific signal attributes and to keep track of their evolution. The standard technique is the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), using which one decomposes a signal in terms of windowed Fourier bases. An advancement over STFT is the wavelet analysis in which a function is represented in terms of shifted and dilated versions of a localized function called the wavelet. A specific modeling approach particularly in the context of speech is based on short-time linear prediction or short-time Wiener filtering of noisy speech. In most nonstationary signal processing formalisms, the key idea is to analyze the properties of the signal locally, either by first truncating the signal and then performing a basis expansion (as in the case of STFT), or by choosing compactly-supported basis functions (as in the case of wavelets). We retain the same motivation as these approaches, but use polynomials to model the signal on a short-time basis (“short-time polynomial representation”). To emphasize the local nature of the modeling aspect, we refer to it as “local polynomial modeling (LPM).”
We pursue two main threads of research in this thesis: (i) Short-time approaches for speech enhancement; and (ii) LPM for enhancing smooth signals, with applications to ECG, noisy nonuniformly-sampled signals, and voiced/unvoiced segmentation in noisy speech.
Improved iterative Wiener filtering for speech enhancement
A constrained iterative Wiener filter solution for speech enhancement was proposed by Hansen and Clements. Sreenivas and Kirnapure improved the performance of the technique by imposing codebook-based constraints in the process of parameter estimation. The key advantage is that the optimal parameter search space is confined to the codebook. The Nonstationary signal enhancement solutions assume stationary noise. However, in practical applications, noise is not stationary and hence updating the noise statistics becomes necessary. We present a new approach to perform reliable noise estimation based on spectral subtraction. We first estimate the signal spectrum and perform signal subtraction to estimate the noise power spectral density. We further smooth the estimated noise spectrum to ensure reliability. The key contributions are: (i) Adaptation of the technique for non-stationary noises; (ii) A new initialization procedure for faster convergence and higher accuracy; (iii) Experimental determination of the optimal LP-parameter space; and (iv) Objective criteria and speech recognition tests for performance comparison.
Optimal local polynomial modeling and applications
We next address the problem of fitting a piecewise-polynomial model to a smooth signal corrupted by additive noise. Since the signal is smooth, it can be represented using low-order polynomial functions provided that they are locally adapted to the signal. We choose the mean-square error as the criterion of optimality. Since the model is local, it preserves the temporal structure of the signal and can also handle nonstationary noise. We show that there is a trade-off between the adaptability of the model to local signal variations and robustness to noise (bias-variance trade-off), which we solve using a stochastic optimization technique known as the intersection of confidence intervals (ICI) technique. The key trade-off parameter is the duration of the window over which the optimum LPM is computed.
Within the LPM framework, we address three problems: (i) Signal reconstruction from noisy uniform samples; (ii) Signal reconstruction from noisy nonuniform samples; and (iii) Classification of speech signals into voiced and unvoiced segments.
The generic signal model is
x(tn)=s(tn)+d(tn),0 ≤ n ≤ N - 1.
In problems (i) and (iii) above, tn=nT(uniform sampling); in (ii) the samples are taken at nonuniform instants. The signal s(t)is assumed to be smooth; i.e., it should admit a local polynomial representation. The problem in (i) and (ii) is to estimate s(t)from x(tn); i.e., we are interested in optimal signal reconstruction on a continuous domain starting from uniform or nonuniform samples.
We show that, in both cases, the bias and variance take the general form:
The mean square error (MSE) is given by
where L is the length of the window over which the polynomial fitting is performed, f is a function of s(t), which typically comprises the higher-order derivatives of s(t), the order itself dependent on the order of the polynomial, and g is a function of the noise variance. It is clear that the bias and variance have complementary characteristics with respect to L. Directly optimizing for the MSE would give a value of L, which involves the functions f and g. The function g may be estimated, but f is not known since s(t)is unknown. Hence, it is not practical to compute the minimum MSE (MMSE) solution. Therefore, we obtain an approximate result by solving the bias-variance trade-off in a probabilistic sense using the ICI technique. We also propose a new approach to optimally select the ICI technique parameters, based on a new cost function that is the sum of the probability of false alarm and the area covered over the confidence interval. In addition, we address issues related to optimal model-order selection, search space for window lengths, accuracy of noise estimation, etc.
The next issue addressed is that of voiced/unvoiced segmentation of speech signal. Speech segments show different spectral and temporal characteristics based on whether the segment is voiced or unvoiced. Most speech processing techniques process the two segments differently. The challenge lies in making detection techniques offer robust performance in the presence of noise. We propose a new technique for voiced/unvoiced clas-sification by taking into account the fact that voiced segments have a certain degree of regularity, and that the unvoiced segments do not possess any smoothness. In order to capture the regularity in voiced regions, we employ the LPM. The key idea is that regions where the LPM is inaccurate are more likely to be unvoiced than voiced. Within this frame-work, we formulate a hypothesis testing problem based on the accuracy of the LPM fit and devise a test statistic for performing V/UV classification. Since the technique is based on LPM, it is capable of adapting to nonstationary noises. We present Monte Carlo results to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed technique.2015-07-21T18:30:00ZDimensioning Of Corona Control Rings For EHV/UHV Line Hardware And SubstationsChatterjee, Sreenitahttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/24462015-07-13T09:44:23Z2015-07-12T18:30:00ZTitle: Dimensioning Of Corona Control Rings For EHV/UHV Line Hardware And Substations
Authors: Chatterjee, Sreenita
Abstract: High voltage (EHV and UHV) transmission facilitates transfer of large amount of power over long distances. However, due to the inherent geometry, the line and substation hardware of EHV and UHV class generate high electric fields, which results in local ionisation of air called corona discharges. Apart from producing audible noise in the form of frying or hissing sound, corona produces significant electromagnetic interferences in the radio range. The limit for this corona generated Radio Interference (RI) has been stipulated by international standards, which are strictly to be followed.
In line and substation hardware, corona control rings are generally employed to limit or avoid corona. Standard dimensions of corona rings are not available for EHV and UHV class. In most of the cases, their design is based on either a trial and error method or based on empirical extrapolation. Only in certain specific cases, the dimensioning of the rings is carried out using electric field calculations. In any of these approaches, the unavoidable surface abrasions, which can lead to corona, are not considered. There are also efforts to account for nominal surface irregularity by using a surface roughness factor, which is highly heuristic.
In order to address this practically relevant problem, the present work was taken up. The intended exercise requires accurate field computation and a suitable criterion for checking corona onset. For the first part, the Surface Charge Simulation Method is adopted with newly proposed sub-modelling technique. The surface of the toroid is discretised into curvilinear patches with linear approximation for the surface charge density. Owing to its high accuracy, Galerkin’s method of moments formulation is employed. The problem of singularity encountered in the numerical approach is handled using a method based on Duffy’s transformation. The developed codes have also been validated with standard geometries.
After a survey of relevant literature the ‘Critical Avalanche Criteria’ is chosen for its simplicity and applicability to the problem. Through a detailed simulation, the effect of avalanche space charge in reducing the corona onset voltage is found to be around 1.5% and hence it is not considered further.
For utilities not interested in a detailed calculation procedure for dimensioning of corona rings, design curves are developed for circular corona rings of both 400 kV and 765 kV class with surface roughness factor in the range 0.8 – 1.
In the second part of the work, a methodology for dimensioning is developed wherein the inevitable surface abrasion in the form of minute protrusions can be accounted. It is first shown that even though considerable field intensification occurs at the protrusions, such localised modification need not lead to corona. It is shown that by varying the minor radius of the corona ring, it is possible to get a design where the prescribed surface abrasion does not lead to corona onset.
In summary, the present work has successfully developed a reliable methodology for the design of corona rings with prescribed surface abrasions. It involved development of an efficient field computation technique for handling minute surface protrusions and use of appropriate criteria for assessing corona inception. It has also provided design curves for EHV and UHV class corona rings with surface roughness factor specified in the range 0.8 – 1.0.2015-07-12T18:30:00ZSpace-Vector-Based Pulse Width Modulation Strategies To Reduce Pulsating Torque In Induction Motor DrivesHari, V S S Pavan Kumarhttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/24412015-05-27T07:01:08Z2015-05-26T18:30:00ZTitle: Space-Vector-Based Pulse Width Modulation Strategies To Reduce Pulsating Torque In Induction Motor Drives
Authors: Hari, V S S Pavan Kumar
Abstract: Voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the speed of an induction motor by applying AC voltage of variable amplitude and frequency. The semiconductor switches in
a VSI are turned on and off in an appropriate fashion to vary the output voltage of the VSI. Various pulse width modulation (PWM) methods are available to generate the gating signals for the switches. The process of PWM ensures proper fundamental voltage, but introduces harmonics at the output of the VSI. Ripple in the developed torque of the induction motor, also known as pulsating torque, is a prominent consequence of the harmonic content.
The harmonic voltages, impressed by the VSI on the motor, differ from one PWM method to another. Space-vector-based approach to PWM facilitates a large number of switching patterns or switching sequences to operate the switches in a VSI. The switching sequences can be classified as conventional, bus-clamping and advanced bus-clamping sequences.
The conventional sequence switches each phase once in a half-carrier cycle or sub-cycle, as in case of sine-triangle PWM, third harmonic injection PWM and conventional space vector PWM (CSVPWM). The bus-clamping sequences clamp a phase to one of the DC terminals of the VSI in certain regions of the fundamental cycle; these are employed by discontinuous PWM (DPWM) methods. Popular DPWM methods include 30 degree clamp PWM, wherein a phase is clamped during the middle 30 degree duration of each quarter cycle, and 60 degree clamp PWM which clamps a phase in the middle 60 degree duration of each half cycle.
Advanced bus-clamping PWM (ABCPWM) involves switching sequences that switch a phase twice in a sub-cycle besides clamping another phase. Unlike CSVPWM and BCPWM, the PWM waveforms corresponding to ABCPWM methods cannot be generated by comparison of three modulating signals against a common carrier. The process of modulation in ABCPWM is analyzed from a per-phase perspective, and a computationally efficient methodology to realize the sequences is derived. This methodology simplifies simulation and digital implementation of ABCPWM techniques. Further, a quick-simulation tool is developed to simulate motor drives, operated with a wide range of PWM methods. This tool is used for validation of various analytical results before experimental investigations.
The switching sequences differ in terms of the harmonic voltages applied on the machine. The harmonic currents and, in turn, the torque ripple are different for different
switching sequences. Analytical expression for the instantaneous torque ripple is derived for the various switching sequences. These analytical expressions are used to predict the torque ripple, corresponding to different switching sequences, at various operating conditions. These are verified through numerical simulations and experiments.
Further, the spectral properties are studied for the torque ripple waveforms, pertaining to conventional space vector PWM (CSVPWM), 30 degree clamp PWM, 60 degree clamp PWM and ABCPWM methods. Based on analytical, simulation and experimental results, the magnitude of the dominant torque harmonic with an ABCPWM method is shown to be significantly lower than that with CSVPWM. Also, this ABCPWM method results in lower RMS torque ripple than the BCPWM methods at any speed and CSVPWM at high speeds of the motor.
Design of hybrid PWM methods to reduce the RMS torque ripple is described. A hybrid PWM method to reduce the RMS torque ripple is proposed. The proposed method
results in a dominant torque harmonic of magnitude lower than those due to CSVPWM and ABCPWM. The peak-to-peak torque in each sub-cycle is analyzed for different
switching sequences. Another hybrid PWM is proposed to reduce the peak-to-peak torque ripple in each sub-cycle. Both the proposed hybrid PWM methods reduce
the torque ripple, without increasing the total harmonic distortion (THD) in line current, compared to CSVPWM.
CSVPWM divides the zero vector time equally between the two zero states of a VSI. The zero vector time can optimally be divided to minimize the RMS torque ripple in each sub-cycle. It is shown that such an optimal division of zero vector time is the same as addition of third harmonic of magnitude 0.25 times the fundamental magnitude to the three-phase sinusoidal modulating signals. ABCPWM applies an active state twice in a sub-cycle, with the active vector time divided equally. Optimal division of active vector time in ABCPWM to minimize the RMS torque ripple is evaluated, both theoretically and experimentally. Compared to CSVPWM, this optimal PWM is shown to reduce the RMS torque ripple significantly over a wide range of speed.
The various PWM schemes are implemented on ALTERA CycloneII field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based digital control platform along with sensorless vector control and torque estimation algorithms. The controller generates the gating signals for a 10kVA IGBT-based two-level VSI connected to a 5hp, 400V, 4-pole, 50Hz squirrel-cage induction motor. The induction motor is coupled to a 230V, 3kW separately-excited DC generator.2015-05-26T18:30:00ZNew Approaches And Experimental Studies On - Alegebraic Attacks On Stream CiphersPillai, N Rajeshhttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/24362015-02-05T12:10:57Z2015-02-04T18:30:00ZTitle: New Approaches And Experimental Studies On - Alegebraic Attacks On Stream Ciphers
Authors: Pillai, N Rajesh
Abstract: Algebraic attacks constitute an effective class of cryptanalytic attacks which have come up recently. In algebraic attacks, the relations between the input, output and the key are expressed as a system of equations and then solved for the key. The main idea is in obtaining a system of equations
which is solvable using reasonable amount of resources. The new approaches proposed in this work and experimental studies on the existing algebraic attacks on stream ciphers will be presented.
In the first attack on filter generator, the input-output relations are expressed in conjunctive normal form. The system of equations is then solved using modified Zakrevskij technique. This was one of the earliest algebraic attacks on the nonlinear filter generator.
In the second attack, we relaxed the constraint on algebraic attack that
the entire system description be known and the output sequence extension problem where the filter function is unknown is considered. We modeled the problem as a multivariate interpolation problem and solved it. An advantage of this approach is that it can be adapted to work for noisy output sequences where as the existing algebraic attacks expect the output sequence to be error free.
Adding memory to filter/combiner function increases the degree of system of equations and finding low degree equations in this case is computeintensive. The method for computing low degree relations for combiners
with memory was applied to the combiner in E0 stream cipher. We found that the relation given in literature [Armknecht and Krause] was incorrect.
We obtained the correct equation and verified its correctness.
A time-data size trade off attack for clock controlled filter generator was developed. The time complexity and the data requirements are in between the two approaches used in literature.
A recent development of algebraic attacks - the Cube attack was studied.
Cube attack on variants of Trivium were proposed by Dinur and Shamir where linear equations in key bits were obtained by combining equations for output bit for same key and a set of Initialization Vectors (IVs). We investigated the effectiveness of the cube attack on Trivium. We showed
that the linear equations obtained were not general and hence the attack succeeds only for some specific values of IVs. A reason for the equations not being general is given and a modification to the linear equation finding step suggested.2015-02-04T18:30:00Z