etd@IISc Collection:http://hdl.handle.net/2005/192015-03-25T04:22:16Z2015-03-25T04:22:16ZEqualization Algorithms And Performance Analysis In Cyclic-Prefixed Single Carrier And Multicarrier Wireless SystemsItankar, Yogendra Umeshhttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/23142014-05-21T09:10:43Z2014-05-20T18:30:00ZTitle: Equalization Algorithms And Performance Analysis In Cyclic-Prefixed Single Carrier And Multicarrier Wireless Systems
Authors: Itankar, Yogendra Umesh
Abstract: The work reported in this thesis is divided in to two parts.
In the first part, we report a closed-form bit error rate (BER) performance analysis of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) on the uplink in the presence of carrier frequency offsets (CFOs) and/or timing offsets (TOs) of other users with respect to a desired user. We derive BER expressions using probability density function (pdf) and characteristic function approaches, for a Rician faded multi-cluster multi-path channel model that is typical of indoor ultrawideband channels and underwater acoustic channels. Numerical and simulation results show that the BER expressions derived accurately quantify the performance degradation due to non-zero CFOs and TOs.
Ultrawideband channels in indoor/industrial environment and underwater acoustic channels are severely delay-spread channels, where the number of multipath components can be of the order of tens to hundreds. In the second part of the thesis, we report low complexity equalization algorithms for cyclic-prefixed single carrier (CPSC)systems that operate on such inter-symbol interference(ISI) channels characterized by large delay spreads. Both single-input single-output and multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO) systems are considered. For these systems, we propose a low complexity graph based equalization carried out in frequency domain. Because of the noise whitening effect that happens for large frame sizes and delay spreads in the frequency domain processing, improved performance compared to time domain processing is shown to be achieved. Since the graph based equalizer is a soft-input soft-output equalizer, iterative techniques(turbo-equalization) between detection and decoding are shown to yield good coded BER performance at low complexities in convolutional and LDPC coded systems. We also study joint decoding of LDPC code and equalization of MIMO-ISI channels using a joint factor graph.2014-05-20T18:30:00ZTowards Development Of Low Cost Electrochemical Biosensor For Detecting Percentage Glycated HemoglobinSiva Rama Krishna, Vhttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/23402014-07-11T05:40:34Z2014-07-10T18:30:00ZTitle: Towards Development Of Low Cost Electrochemical Biosensor For Detecting Percentage Glycated Hemoglobin
Authors: Siva Rama Krishna, V
Abstract: There is an ever growing demand for low cost biosensors in medical diagnostics. A well known commercially successful example is glucose biosensors which are used to diagonize and monitor diabetes. These biosensors use electrochemical analysis (electro analysis) as transduction mechanism. Electro analytical techniques involve application of electrical stimulus to the chemical/biochemical system under consideration and measurement of electrical response due to the oxidation and reduction reactions that occur because of the stimulus. They offer a lot of advantages in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, cost effectiveness and compatibility towards integration with electronics. Besides glucose, there are several biomolecules of significance for which electro analysis can potentially be used to develop low cost, rapid, easy to use biosensors. One such biomolecule is Glycated Hemoglobin (GHb). It is a post translational, non-enzymatic modification of hemoglobin with glucose and is a very good biomarker that indicates the average value of blood glucose over the past 120 days. It is always expresses as a percentage of total hemoglobin present in blood. Monitoring diabetes based on the value of percentage Glycated hemoglobin is advantageous as it gives an average value of glucose unlike plasma glucose values which vary a lot on a day to day basis depending on the dietary habits and the stress levels of the individual. This thesis is focused on the development of a low coat, easy to use, disposable sensor for measuring percentage Glycated hemoglobin.
The first challenge in developing such a sensor is isolation of hemoglobin. Unlike glucose which is present in blood plasma (liquid content of blood), hemoglobin resides inside red blood cells also known as erythrocytes. O isolate hemoglobin, these cells have to be broken or lysed. All the existing approaches rely on mixing blood with lysing reagents to lyse erythrocytes. Ideal biosensors should be devoid of liquid reagents. Keeping this in perspective, in this thesis, this challenge is addressed by developing two entirely buffer/reagentless techniques to lyse erythrocytes and isolate hemoglobin. In the first technique, cellulose acetate membranes are embedded with lysing reagents and are used for lysing reagents and are used for lysing application. In the second techniques, commercially available nylon mesh nets are modified with lysing reagents to lyse and isolate hemoglobin. These membranes or mesh nets can be easily integrated on top of a disposable strip.
After isolating hemoglobin, the next challenge is to selectively detect Glycated hemoglobin. Boronic acid conjugates are known to bind Glycated hemoglobin. Using this principle, a new composite is sysnthesized to specifically detect glc\ycated hemoglobin. The composite (GO-APBA) is a result of functionalization of Graphene Oxide (GO) with 3-aminophenylboronic acide (APBA). Detection of Glycated hemoglobin is achieved by modifying screen printed electrode strips with the synthesized compound, thus taking a step forwards achieving the objective.
Since Glycated hemoglobin is always expressed as a percentage of hemoglobin, the next challenge is to detect total hemoglobin. In this thesis a low cost way of detecting hemoglobin is achieved by using GO modified or surfactant modified screen printed electrode strips. Furthermore, the potential interferences that blood plasma can cause in these measurements are eliminated with the help of permselective coatings.
Thus using the technologies developed in this thesis, measurements of percentage Glycated hemoglobin can be potentially made on handheld electronic devices akin to glucose meters by using just a drop of blood.2014-07-10T18:30:00ZAnonymity With AuthenticitySwaroop, Dhttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/23742014-09-02T05:48:29Z2014-09-01T18:30:00ZTitle: Anonymity With Authenticity
Authors: Swaroop, D
Abstract: Cryptography is science of secure message transmission. Cryptanalysis is involved with breaking these encrypted messages. Both cryptography and cryptanalysis constitute together to form cryptology.
Anonymity means namelessness i.e., the quality or state of being unknown while authenticity translates to the quality or condition of being authentic or genuine. Anonymity and authenticity are two different embodiments of personal secrecy. Modern power has increased in its capacity to designate individuals, due to which they find it inconvenient to continue communicating, remaining anonymous.
In this thesis we are going to describe an anonymous system which consists of a number of entities which are anonymous and are communicating with each other without revealing their identity and at the same time maintaining their authenticity such that an anonymous entity(sayE1)will be able to verify that, the message it received from another anonymous entity(sayE2)subsequent to an initial message from E2, are in fact from E2 itself. Later when E2 tries to recommend a similar communication to E1 with another anonymous entity E3 in the system, E1 must be able to verify that recommendation, without E2 losing its authenticity of its communication with E1 to E3.
This thesis is divided into four chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to cryptography, symmetric key cryptography and public key cryptography. It also summarizes the contribution of this thesis.
The second chapter gives various protocol for the above problem ’Anonymity with Authenticity’ along with its extension. Totally six protocols are proposed for the above problem.
In third chapter all these six protocols are realized using four different schemes, where each scheme has its own pros and cons.
The fourth and final chapter concludes with a note on what possible factors these four different realization schemes need to be chosen and other possible realization schemes.2014-09-01T18:30:00ZResource Management In Celluar And Mobile Opportunistic NetworksSingh, Chandramani Kishorehttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/24242015-01-07T05:42:52Z2015-01-06T18:30:00ZTitle: Resource Management In Celluar And Mobile Opportunistic Networks
Authors: Singh, Chandramani Kishore
Abstract: In this thesis we study several resource management problems in two classes of wireless networks. The thesis is in two parts, the first being concerned with game theoretic approaches for cellular networks, and the second with control theoretic approaches for mobile opportunistic networks.
In Part I of the thesis, we first investigate optimal association and power control for the uplink of multichannel multicell cellular networks, in which each channel is used by exactly one base station (BS) (i.e., cell). Users have minimum signal to interference ratio(SINR) requirements and associate with BSs where least transmission powers are required. We formulate the problem as a non-cooperative game among users. We propose a distributed association and power update algorithm, and show its convergence to a Nash equilibrium of the game. We consider network models with discrete mobiles(yielding an atomic congestion game),as well as a continuum of mobiles(yielding a population game). We find that the equilibria need not be Pareto efficient, nor need they be system optimal. To address the lack of system optimality, we propose pricing mechanisms. We show that these prices weakly enforce system optimality in general, and strongly enforce it in special settings. We also show that these mechanisms can be implemented in distributed fashions.
Next, we consider the hierarchical problems of user association and BS placement, where BSs may belong to the same(or, cooperating) or to competing service providers. Users transmit with constant power, and associate with base stations that yield better SINRs. We formulate the association problem as a game among users; it determines the cell corresponding to each BS. Some intriguing observations we report are:(i)displacing a BS a little in one direction may result in a displacement of the boundary of the corresponding cell to the opposite direction;(ii)A cell corresponding to a BS may be the union of disconnected sub-cells. We then study the problem of the placement of BSs so as to maximize service providers’ revenues. The service providers need to take into account the mobiles’ behavior that will be induced by the placement decisions. We consider the cases of single frequency band and disjoint frequency bands of operation. We also consider the networks in which BSs employ successive interference cancellation(SIC) decoding. We observe that the BS locations are closer to each other in the competitive case than in the cooperative case, in all scenarios considered.
Finally, we study cooperation among cellular service providers. We consider networks in which communications involving different BSs do not interfere. If service providers jointly deploy and pool their resources, such as spectrum and BSs, and agree to serve each others’ customers, their aggregate payoff substantially increases. The potential of such cooperation can, however ,be realized only if the service providers intelligently determine who they would cooperate with, how they would deploy and share their resources, and how they would share the aggregate payoff. We first assume that the service providers can arbitrarily share the aggregate payoff. A rational basis for payoff sharing is imperative for the stability of the coalitions. We study cooperation using the theory of transferable payoff coalitional games. We show that the optimum cooperation strategy, which involves the acquisition of channels, and deployment and allocation of BSs to customers, is the solution of a concave or an integer optimization problem. We then show that the grand coalition is stable, i.e., if all the service providers cooperate, there is an operating point offering each service provider a share that eliminates the possibility of a subset of service providers splitting from the grand coalition; this operating point also maximizes the service providers’ aggregate payoff. These stabilizing payoff shares are computed by solving the dual of the above optimization problem. Moreover, the optimal cooperation strategy and the stabilizing payoff shares can be obtained in polynomial time using distributed computations and limited exchange of confidential information among the service providers. We then extend the analysis to the scenario where service providers may not be able to share their payoffs. We now model cooperation as a nontransferable payoff coalitional game. We again show that there exists a cooperation strategy that leaves no incentive for any subset of service providers to split from the grand coalition. To compute this cooperation strategy and the corresponding payoffs, we relate this game and its core to an exchange market and its equilibrium. Finally, we extend the formulations and the results to the case when customers are also decision makers in coalition formation.
In Part II of this thesis, we consider the problem of optimal message forwarding in mobile opportunistic wireless networks. A message originates at a node(source), and has to be delivered to another node (destination). In the network, there are several other nodes that can assist in relaying the message at the expense of additional transmission energies. We study the trade-off between delivery delay and energy consumption. First, we consider mobile opportunistic networks employing two-hop relaying. Because of the intermittent connectivity, the source may not have perfect knowledge of the delivery status at every instant. We formulate the problem as a stochastic control problem with partial information, and study structural properties of the optimal policy. We also propose a simple suboptimal policy. We then compare the performance of the suboptimal policy against that of the optimal control with perfect information. These are bounds on the performance of the proposed policy with partial information. We also discuss a few other related open loop policies.
Finally, we investigate the case where a message has to be delivered to several destinations, but we are concerned with delay until a certain fraction of them receive the message. The network employs epidemic relaying. We first assume that, at every instant, all the nodes know the number of relays carrying the packet and the number of destinations that have received the packet. We formulate the problem as a controlled continuous time Markov chain, and derive the optimal forwarding policy. As observed earlier, the intermittent connectivity in the network implies that the nodes may not have the required perfect knowledge of the system state. To address this issue, we then obtain an ODE(i.e., a deterministic fluid) approximation for the optimally controlled Markov chain. This fluid approximation also yields an asymptotically optimal deterministic policy. We evaluate the performance of this policy over finite networks, and demonstrate that this policy performs close to the optimal closed loop policy. We also briefly discuss the case where message forwarding is accomplished via two-hop relaying.2015-01-06T18:30:00Z