etd@IISc Collection:http://etd.iisc.ernet.in/2005/272018-06-24T00:50:41Z2018-06-24T00:50:41ZEffect of a Mesh on Boundary Layer Transition Induced by Free-stream Turbulence and an Isolated Roughness ElementKumar, P Phanihttp://etd.iisc.ernet.in/2005/37492018-06-23T12:08:37Z2018-06-22T18:30:00ZTitle: Effect of a Mesh on Boundary Layer Transition Induced by Free-stream Turbulence and an Isolated Roughness Element
Authors: Kumar, P Phani
Abstract: A high level of free-stream turbulence and surface roughness are known to cause breakdown of an otherwise stable laminar flow. In transition induced by free-stream turbulence, streaks are formed due to the lift-up effect and low-speed streaks with high shear breakdown to turbulence. Streaks are also present in transition caused by a roughness element and they may breakdown via sinuous or varicose instability. In general, streamwise streaks, their lift-up and streak instability are integral to the bypass transition process. If the lift-up of a high-shear layer or its breakdown is manipulated by some external means, then the downstream flow is expected to change.
An experimental study was carried out to understand the effect of flow modification caused by a mesh placed normal to the flow and at different wall-normal locations in the late stage of bypass transitions induced separately by an isolated cylindrical roughness element and a high level of free-stream turbulence. The measurements were made on a flat plate boundary layer in a low-speed wind tunnel using the particle image velocimetry technique. The mesh causes an approximately 30% reduction in the free-stream velocity, and mild acceleration in the boundary layer, irrespective of its wall-normal location. Interestingly, when located near the wall, the mesh suppresses several transitional events leading to transition delay over a large downstream distance. The transition delay is found to be mainly caused by suppression of the lift-up of the high-shear layer and its distortion, along with modification of the spanwise streaky structure to an orderly one. However, with the mesh well away from the wall, the lifted-up shear layer remains largely unaffected, and the downstream boundary layer velocity profile develops an overshoot which is found to follow a plane mixing layer type profile up to the free stream. Reynolds stresses, and the size and strength of vortices increase in this mixing layer region. The high-intensity disturbance in this region can possibly enhance the transition of accelerated flow far downstream, although a reduction in streamwise turbulence intensity occurs over a short distance downstream of the mesh. However, the shape of large-scale streamwise structure in the wall-normal plane is found to be more or less the same as that without the mesh.2018-06-22T18:30:00ZAnalysis of Thick Laminated Composite Beams using Variational Asymptotic MethodAmeen, Maqsood Mohammedhttp://etd.iisc.ernet.in/2005/37202018-06-18T11:20:48Z2018-06-17T18:30:00ZTitle: Analysis of Thick Laminated Composite Beams using Variational Asymptotic Method
Authors: Ameen, Maqsood Mohammed
Abstract: An asymptotically-exact methodology is presented for obtaining the cross-sectional stiffness matrix of a pre-twisted, moderately-thick beam having rectangular cross sections and made of transversely isotropic material. The beam is modelled with-out assumptions from 3-D elasticity. The strain energy of the beam is computed making use of the constitutive law and the kinematical relations derived with the inclusion of geometrical nonlinearities and initial twist. Large displacements and rotations are allowed, but small strain is assumed. The Variational Asymptotic Method (VAM) is used to minimize the energy functional, thereby reducing the cross section to a point on the reference line with appropriate properties, yielding a 1-D constitutive law. In this method as applied herein, the 2-D cross-sectional analysis is performed asymptotically by taking advantage of a material small parameter and two geometric small parameters. 3-D strain components are derived using kinematics and arranged as orders of the small parameters. Warping functions are obtained by the minimisation of strain energy subject to certain set of constraints that renders the 1-D strain measures well-defined. Closed-form expressions are derived for the 3-D non-linear warping and stress fields. The model is capable of predicting interlaminar and transverse shear stresses accurately up to first order.2018-06-17T18:30:00ZModeling of Contact in Orthotropic Materials using Variational Asymptotic MethodEswaran, Jai Kiranhttp://etd.iisc.ernet.in/2005/37212018-06-18T11:29:33Z2018-06-17T18:30:00ZTitle: Modeling of Contact in Orthotropic Materials using Variational Asymptotic Method
Authors: Eswaran, Jai Kiran
Abstract: Composites are materials which cater to the present and future needs of many demanding industries, such as aerospace, as they are weight-sensitive for a given requirement of strength and stiff ness, corrosion resistant, potentially multi-functional and can be tailored according to the application. However, they are in particular difficult to join as they cannot be easily machined, without introducing damages which can eventually grow. Any structure is as strong as its weakest joint. Most of the joints belong to the category of mechanically-fastened joints and they pose enormous challenges in modeling due to contact phenomena, nonlinearity and stress concentration factors. It is therefore a necessity to construct an efficient model that would include all the relevant contact phenomena in the joints, as it has been pointed out in literature that damage typically initiates near the joint holes.
The focus of this work is to describe the construction of an asymptotically-correct model using the Variational Asymptotic Method (VAM). Amongst its many potential applications, VAM is a well-established analytical tool for obtaining the stress and strain fields for beams and shells. The methodology takes advantage of the small parameter that is inherent in the problem, such as the ratio of certain characteristic dimensions of the structure. In shells and beams, VAM takes advantage of the dimension-based small parameter(s), thereby splitting the problem into 2-D + 1-D (for beams) and 1-D + 2-D (for shells), in turn offering very high computational efficiency with very little loss of accuracy compared to dimensionally unreduced 3-D models. In this work, the applicability of VAM is extended to two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) frictionless contact problems. Since a generalised VAM model for contact has not been pursued before, the `phantom0 step is adopted for both 2-D and 3-D models.
The development of the present work starts with the construction of a 2-D model involving a large rectangular plate being pressed against a rigid frictionless pin. The differential equations governing the problem and the associated boundary conditions are obtained by minimizing the reduced strain energy, augmented with the appropriate gap function, by using a penalty method. The model is developed for both isotropic and orthotropic cases. The boundary value problem is solved numerically and the displacement field obtained is compared with the one obtained using commercial software (ABAQUSr) for validation at critical regions such as the contact surfaces. Banking on the validation of the 2-D model, a 3-D model with a pin and a finite annular cylinder was constructed. The strain energy for the finite cylinder was derived using geometrically exact 3-D kinematics and VAM was applied leading to the reduction in the strain energy for isotropic and orthotropic materials in rectangular and cylindrical co-ordinates. As in the 2-D case, the reduced strain energy, subject to the inequality constraint of the gap function, is minimized with respect to the displacement field and the corresponding boundary value problem is solved numerically. The displacements of the contact surface and the top surface of the annular cylinder are compared with those from ABAQUS and thus validated. The displacement fields obtained using the current 2-D and 3-D models show very good agreement with those from commercial finite element software packages. The model could be re ned further by using the gap function derived in this work and applying it to a plate model based on VAM, which could be explored in the future.2018-06-17T18:30:00ZDesign and Development of 75 mm Fixed-Wing Nano Air VehiclePushpangathan, Jinraj Vhttp://etd.iisc.ernet.in/2005/36892018-06-11T10:04:54Z2018-06-10T18:30:00ZTitle: Design and Development of 75 mm Fixed-Wing Nano Air Vehicle
Authors: Pushpangathan, Jinraj V
Abstract: This thesis deals with the design and development of a 75 mm fixed-wing nano-air vehicle (NAV). The NAV is designed to fit inside a cube with each side measuring 75 mm. The range and endurance of the NAV are 300 m and 2-3 minutes, respectively. The high-wing horizontal tailless NAV has a take-off weight of 19.5 g. The battery-powered single propeller NAV has two control surfaces in the form of elevator and rudder.
This thesis contains a detailed account of the airfoil selection, selection of the configuration of NAV and the longitudinal, lateral and directional aerodynamic characterization of the NAV. The development of one of the lightweight autopilot hardware which weighs 1.8 g is also given in detail. The development of non-linear equations of motion of NAV including thrust and coupling effects is also discussed. The effects of the gyroscopic coupling and counter torque on the linear dynamics of the NAV are analyzed by conducting a parametric study about the variation of the eigenstructure attributable to the varying degree of coupling in the system matrix of the linear coupled model.
A robust simultaneously stabilizing output feedback controller is synthesized for stabilizing the plants of the NAV. The synthesizing of the robust simultaneously stabilizing output feedback controller is based on a frequency-shaped central plant. A new procedure is developed to determine the frequency-shaped central plant utilizing the v-gap metric between the plants, the frequency-shaping of the plants with the pre and post compensators and the robust stabilization theory. An optimization problem is formulated to obtain these compensators. A novel iterative algorithm is developed to acquire the compensators by solving the optimization problem. Thereafter, an iterative algorithm is developed to find an output feedback controller for robust simultaneous stabilization by blending the existing features of robust stability condition of right co-prime uncertainty model of the frequency-shaped central plant, the maximum v-gap metric of the frequency-shaped central plant, H∞ loop-shaping and eigenstructure assignment algorithm for output feedback using the genetic algorithm. The six-degree-of-freedom numerical and hardware-in-loop simulations (HILS) of closed-loop non-linear and linear plants of NAV are performed to assess the performance of the controller and to validate the control algorithm implemented in the autopilot.
The airworthiness of the aircraft is tested by conducting flight trials in radio-controlled (RC) mode without including the autopilot. The successful RC flight trial of the NAV indicates airworthiness of the aircraft which aided in freezing the configuration. This is one of the smallest fixed wing aerial vehicle that was successfully flown till date.2018-06-10T18:30:00Z