etd@IISc Collection:http://hdl.handle.net/2005/292016-09-28T10:50:24Z2016-09-28T10:50:24ZStudies On The Viability Of The Boundary Element Method For The Real-Time Simulation Of Biological OrgansKirana Kumara, Phttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/25532016-09-02T12:11:06Z2016-09-01T18:30:00ZTitle: Studies On The Viability Of The Boundary Element Method For The Real-Time Simulation Of Biological Organs
Authors: Kirana Kumara, P
Abstract: Realistic and real-time computational simulation of biological organs (e.g., human kidneys, human liver) is a necessity when one tries to build a quality surgical simulator that can simulate surgical procedures involving these organs. Currently deformable models, spring-mass models, or finite element models are widely used to achieve the realistic simulations and/or the real-time performance. It is widely agreed that continuum mechanics based numerical techniques are preferred over deformable models or spring-mass models, but those techniques are computationally expensive and hence the higher accuracy offered by those numerical techniques come at the expense of speed. Hence there is a need to study the speed of different numerical techniques, while keeping an eye on the accuracy offered by those numerical techniques. Such studies are available for the Finite Element Method (FEM) but rarely available for the Boundary Element Method (BEM). Hence the present work aims to conduct a study on the viability of BEM for the real-time simulation of biological organs, and the present study is justified by the fact that BEM is considered to be inherently efficient when compared to mesh based techniques like FEM. A significant portion of literature on the real-time simulation of biological organs suggests the use of BEM to achieve better simulations. When one talks about the simulation of biological organs, one needs to have the geometry of a biological organ in hand. Geometry of biological organs of interest is not readily available many a times, and hence there is a need to extract the three dimensional (3D) geometry of biological organs from a stack of two dimensional (2D) scanned images. Software packages that can readily reconstruct 3D geometry of biological organs from 2D images are expensive. Hence, a novel procedure that requires only a few free software packages to obtain the geometry of biological organs from 2D image sequences is presented. The geometry of a pig liver is extracted from CT scan images for illustration purpose. Next, the three dimensional geometry of human kidney (left and right kidneys of male, and left and right kidneys of female) is obtained from the Visible Human Dataset (VHD). The novel procedure presented in this work can be used to obtain patient specific organ geometry from patient specific images, without requiring any of the many commercial software packages that can readily do the job. To carry out studies on the speed and accuracy of BEM, a source code for BEM is needed. Since the BEM code for 3D elasticity is not readily available, a BEM code that can solve 3D linear elastostatic problems without accounting for body forces is developed from scratch. The code comes in three varieties: a MATLAB version, a Fortran version (sequential version), and a Fortran version (parallelized version). This is the first free and open source BEM code for 3D elasticity. The developed code is used to carry out studies on the viability of BEM for the real-time simulation of biological organs, and a few representative problems involving kidneys and liver are found to give accurate solutions. The present work demonstrates that it is possible to simulate linear elastostatic behaviour in real-time using BEM without resorting to any type of precomputations, on a computer cluster by fully parallelizing the simulations and by performing simulations on different number of processors and for different block sizes. Since it is possible to get a complete solution in real-time, there is no need to separately prove that every type of cutting, suturing etc. can be simulated in real-time. Future work could involve incorporating nonlinearities into the simulations. Finally, a BEM based simulator may be built, after taking into account details like rendering.2016-09-01T18:30:00ZIntegrating Product Model With Assembly Process Model Using LiaisonsSwain, Abinash Kumarhttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/22932014-04-09T09:31:21Z2014-04-08T18:30:00ZTitle: Integrating Product Model With Assembly Process Model Using Liaisons
Authors: Swain, Abinash Kumar
Abstract: This thesis addresses the problem of achieving better convergence between different phases (here design and manufacturing) of the product development cycle. The use of liaison has been proposed to better integrate the product and assembly process. Two facets of integration have been addressed in this thesis. One is concurrent evolution of the process model with the product model and the second is associativity between product model and process model. A liaison data structure has been proposed, which is set of geometric entities, associated with one or more assembly process that acts as an interface between the product model and process model. As the liaison data is not available explicitly in the product model, a set of algorithms have been developed and implemented to identify and extract the geometric entities defined in the liaison data structure from assembly model. The proposed algorithms can identify and extract liaisons for riveting, welding, bolt fastening, screw fastening, adhesive bonding (gluing) and blind fastening. The developed algorithms have been implemented and tested.
The process model needs to evolve with the product model concurrently so that any mistakes or infeasibility in the process model can be flagged right away. The use of liaison enables the construction of process model as the product model is fleshed out. A framework based on liaison has been proposed and implemented to demonstrate the concurrent evolution of product and process model.
Linking the changes in the product model to flag the changes (or at least identify the need for changes) in the process model forms the associativity problem. The liaison has been used for maintaining associativity between the product and process model. A framework has been proposed for maintaining associativity between product model and process model that makes use of expert knowledge or tribal knowledge to track impact of changes in product model or process model. An aircraft wing box has been used as an example to illustrate and validate the proposed approaches.
Finally the thesis concludes by summarizing contributions of the research and outlining future work.2014-04-08T18:30:00ZMuscle Fatigue Analysis During Dyanamic ConractionMishra, Ram Kinkerhttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/25562016-09-09T13:58:07Z2016-09-08T18:30:00ZTitle: Muscle Fatigue Analysis During Dyanamic Conraction
Authors: Mishra, Ram Kinker
Abstract: In the field of ergonomics, biomechanics, sports and rehabilitation muscle fatigue is regarded as an important aspect since muscle fatigue is considered to be one of the main reasons for musculoskeletal disorders. Classical signal processing techniques used to understand muscle behavior are mainly based on spectral based parameters estimation, and mostly applied during static contraction and the signal must be stationary within the analysis window; otherwise, the resulting spectrum will make little physical sense. Furthermore, the shape and size of the analysis window also directly affect the spectral estimation. But fatigue analysis in dynamic conditions is of utmost requirement because of its daily life applicability. It is really difficult to consistently find the muscle fatigue during dynamic contraction due to the inherent non-stationary nature and associated noise in the signal along with complex physiological changes in muscles. Nowadays, in addition to linear signal processing, different non-linear signal processing techniques are adopted to find out the consistent and robust indicator for muscle fatigue under dynamic condition considering the high degree of non-linearity (caused by functional interference between different muscles, changes of signal sources and paths to recording electrodes, variable electrode interface etc.) in the signal. In this work, various linear and nonlinear-non-stationary signal processing methods, applied on surface EMG signal for muscular fatigue analysis under dynamic contraction are studied. In present study, surface EMG (sEMG) signals are recorded from Biceps Brachii muscles from eight (N=8) physically active college students during dynamic lifting 7 kg load at the rate of 20 lifts/min till they become fatigue. EMG data is processed in two ways -1. taking the whole EMG response and 2. breaking into three ranges of contraction (0-45)o, (45-90)o and >90o, to study better response region. It is observed that in spectral estimation techniques auto-regressive (AR) based spectral estimation technique gives better frequency resolution than periodogram for small epochs, as AR is based on parametric estimation. Both the previous methods provide only the frequency information in the signal. In order to estimate the time varying nature of frequency content in a signal various time-frequency signal processing techniques are used like – Short Time-Fourier Transform (STFT), Smoothed pseudo
Wigner-Ville (SPWD), Choi-William distribution (CWD), Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), Huang-Hilbert Transform (HHT) and Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) are used. The last two techniques are used by considering the EMG signal as non-linear and non-stationary signals. Among these techniques, STFT is the simplest time-frequency analysis technique. But tradeoff between time and frequency resolution is the major constraint in STFT, therefore, a window length of 256 samples are considered in this study. In order to tackle time-frequency resolution problem different Cohen-class distribution techniques are used like SPWD and CWD, where the result is severely affected by the presence of interference terms which make its interpretation really difficult. Different adaptive filters are used in SPWD and CWD to suppress these interference terms during analysis. Among these time-frequency analysis techniques continuous wavelet transform provides the most accurate results in comparison to other time-frequency analysis techniques. Similar result is obtained in present study. This fatigue response is further improved using non-linear and non-stationary techniques like HHT and RQA. HHT shows less variation in frequency response than CWT analysis result. Percentage of determinism calculated using recurrence quantification analysis method is found to be more sensitive than mean frequency estimation. Therefore, non-linear and non-stationary signal processing techniques are to be better indicator of muscle fatigue during dynamic contraction.2016-09-08T18:30:00ZDevelopment Of An Advanced Methodology For Automotive IC Engine Design Optimization Using A Multi-Physics CAE ApproachSehemby, Amardeep A Singhhttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/25652016-09-14T07:51:24Z2016-09-13T18:30:00ZTitle: Development Of An Advanced Methodology For Automotive IC Engine Design Optimization Using A Multi-Physics CAE Approach
Authors: Sehemby, Amardeep A Singh
Abstract: The internal combustion engine is synonyms with the automobile since its invention in late 19th century. The internal combustion engine today is far more advanced and efficient compared to its early predecessors. An intense competition exists today amongst the automotive OEMs in various countries and regions for stepping up sales and increasing market share. The pressure on automotive OEMs to reduce fuel consumption and emission is enormous which has lead to innovations of many variations in engine and engine-related technologies. However, IC engines are in existence for well more than a century and hence have already evolved to a highly refined state. Changes in IC engine are therefore largely incremental in nature. A deterrent towards development of an engine configuration that is significantly different from its predecessor is the phenomenal cost involved in prototyping. Thus, the only viable alternative in exploring new engine concepts and even optimizing designs currently in operation is through extensive use of CAE.
In light of published work in the field of analysis of IC engines, current research effort is directed towards development of a rational methodology for arriving at a weight-optimized engine design, which simultaneously meets performance of various attributes such as thermal, durability, vehicle dynamics and NVH. This is in contrast to the current methodology adopted in industry, according to which separate teams work on aspects of engine design such as combustion, NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), acoustics, dynamics, heat transfer and durability. Because of the involvement of heterogeneous product development groups, optimization of an engine for weight, which can have a significant impact on its power-to-weight ratio, becomes a slow process beset with manual interventions and compromise solutions. Thus, following the traditional approach, it is quite difficult to claim that an unambiguous weight-optimized design has been achieved. As a departure from the practiced approach, the present research effort is directed at the deployment of a single multi-physics explicit analysis solver, viz. LS-DYNA - generally known for its contact-impact analysis capabilities, for simultaneously evaluating a given engine design for heat transfer, mechanical and thermal loading, and vibration. It may be mentioned that only combustion analysis is carried out in an uncoupled manner, using proven phenomenological thermodynamic relations, to initially arrive at mechanical and thermal loading/boundary conditions for the coupled thermo-mechanical analysis. The proposed methodology can thus be termed as a semi-integrated technique and its efficacy is established with the case study of designing a single cylinder air-cooled diesel engine from scratch and its optimization.2016-09-13T18:30:00Z