etd@IISc Collection:http://hdl.handle.net/2005/332016-06-23T10:58:00Z2016-06-23T10:58:00ZBehaviour Of Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil–Aggregate Systems Under Static, Repeated And Cyclic LoadsNair, Asha Mhttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/25212016-04-26T07:39:53Z2016-04-25T18:30:00ZTitle: Behaviour Of Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil–Aggregate Systems Under Static, Repeated And Cyclic Loads
Authors: Nair, Asha M
Abstract: Efficient road network and connectivity play vital role in the development of any country. Majority of the rural roads are unpaved and connectivity of rural roads is always a major challenge. Unpaved roads are also used for temporary transportation facilities like access roads, haul roads for mines, forest roads and parking lots. Since these roads do not have asphalt surfacing, they are subjected to early failures due to distresses like rutting, pot holes and depressions . Stabilization of unpaved roads using geosynthetics has been proved to be promising in increasing the lifespan of these roads because they facilitate economical, aesthetic and effective design of the roads. Inclusion of geosynthetic layers at the interface of subgrade soil and granular sub-base, reduces the surface heave, ensures a better stress distribution and reduces the stresses transferred to the subgrade soil, as demonstrated by earlier researchers.
Wide variety of geosynthetics like woven and nonwoven geotextiles, uniaxial and biaxial geogrids and geocells are used as reinforcement in road sections. Geotextiles improve the strength by interfacial friction, lateral restraint and membrane effect. Geogrids provide additional benefit of interlocking. Geocells are honeycomb shaped geosynthetic cellular confining systems filled with aggregates in which the reinforcement action is derived not only by friction and interlocking, but also by confinement. Load-deformation characteristics of reinforced soil-aggregate systems under static, repeated and cyclic loads is a potential topic of interest considering the fact that the design of geosynthetic reinforced unpaved roads is still under development and experimentation.
The objective of the present study is to understand the beneficial use of geosynthetics in unpaved roads and to provide clear insight into the influence of geosynthetics on the cyclic loading characteristics of unpaved roads through laboratory experiments. California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests were carried out on unreinforced and reinforced soil-aggregate systems to study the effect of various parameters such as type of reinforcement, form of reinforcement, quantity of reinforcement, and water content of the subgrade soil on the load-penetration response of the various systems. Modified CBR tests were also carried out to understand the influence of boundary of the mould and anchorage of reinforcement on the behavior of reinforced soil-aggregate systems. Behavior of unreinforced and reinforced soil-aggregate systems under repeated and cyclic loading is also studied to understand the resilience of the composite systems. From the measured stress-strain response, the elastic and plastic strains developed in various systems are compared. Different moduli such as secant modulus, cyclic modulus and resilient modulus are computed for different systems and compared.
To investigate the effectiveness of geosynthetics in improving the load - bearing capacity, repeated load tests were carried out on model sections of unpaved road constructed in a steel test tank of size 750 mm × 750 mm × 620 mm. The effect of various parameters like the form of reinforcement, quantity of reinforcement, height of geocell layer and the position of geocell layer on the load-deformation behaviour of the unpaved model road sections was studied. Static and cyclic triaxial tests were carried out on unreinforced and reinforced granular sub-base materials to understand their stress strain behavior under static and cyclic loading conditions. The influence of quantity and form of reinforcement on the stress-strain behaviour of these materials was studied.
From the studies it is observed that the use of reinforcement increases the CBR value of the soil-aggregate systems. Studies with two different sizes of CBR moulds indicated that the boundary effect in the standard CBR mould leads to the overestimation of the CBR value, resulting in unconservative design of road sections. Providing anchorage to the reinforcement in CBR tests did not produce an appreciable change in the load-penetration behavior.
From the repeated load tests it was observed that the reinforced systems did not show any improvement in the load-deformation behaviour at low levels of rut depth. At higher rut depths, the reinforced systems developed less plastic settlements and more elastic settlements and low resilient modulus compared to unreinforced systems. From the model tests on unpaved road sections, it was observed that the improvement in the cyclic load resistance of the road due to the inclusion of geocell layer depends on the height of the geocell layer and its position. Increasing the height of geocell layer resulted in improved performance up to certain height of the geocell layer, beyond which, further increase in the height reduced the load resistance because of the inadequate granular overlay thickness and inadequate compaction of aggregate within the geocell pockets. Static and cyclic triaxial tests showed that the geogrid and geocell reinforced granular sub-base material sustained higher peak stresses and exhibited increase in modulus compared to the unreinforced specimens. Results of element and model tests carried out in this study gave important insight into the load-deformation characteristics of reinforced soil-aggregate systems under static, repeated and dynamic loads. The results provide guidelines regarding the selection of type, quantity and configuration of geosynthetic reinforcement while designing unpaved roads and the expected performance of these reinforced unpaved roads.2016-04-25T18:30:00ZSoil Moisture Modelling, Retrieval From Microwave Remote Sensing And Assimilation In A Tropical WatershedSat Kumar, *http://hdl.handle.net/2005/25082016-03-01T10:48:50Z2016-02-29T18:30:00ZTitle: Soil Moisture Modelling, Retrieval From Microwave Remote Sensing And Assimilation In A Tropical Watershed
Authors: Sat Kumar, *
Abstract: The knowledge of soil moisture is of pronounced importance in various applications e.g. flood control, agricultural production and effective water resources management. These applications require the knowledge of spatial and temporal variation of the soil moisture in the watershed. There are three approaches of estimating/measuring soil moisture namely,(i) in-situ measurements,(ii) remote sensing, and(iii) hydrological modelling. The in situ techniques of measurement provide relatively accurate information at point scale but are not feasible to gather in large numbers relevant for a watershed. The soil moisture can be simulated by hydrological models at the desired spatial and temporal resolution, but these simulations would often be affected by the uncertainties in the model physics, parameters, forcing, initial and boundary conditions. The remote sensing provides an alternative to retrieve the soil moisture of the surface (top few centimeters ) layer, but even this data is limited by the spatial or temporal resolution, which is satellite dependant.
Hydrological models could be improved by assimilating remotely sensed soil moisture, which requires a retrieval algorithm. In order to develop a retrieval algorithm the satellite data need to be calibrated/validated with the in-situ ground measurements. The retrieval of surface soil moisture from microwave remote sensing is sensitive to surface conditions, and hence requires calibration/validation specific to a site/region. The improvement in the hydrological variables/fluxes is sensitive to the framework adopted during the assimilation of remotely sensed data. The main focus of the study was to assess the retrieval algorithm for the surface soil moisture from both active (ENVISAT,RADARSAT-2)and passive(AMSR-E) microwave satellites in a semi-arid tropical watershed of South India. Further, the usefulness of these retrieved remotely sensed products for the estimation of recharge was investigated by developing a coupled hydrological model and an assimilation framework.
A brief introduction was made in Chapter 1 on the importance of surface soil moisture and evapotranspiration in hydrology, and the feasible options available for the retrieval from microwave remote sensing. A detailed review of the literature is presented in Chapter 2 to establish the state-of-the-art on the following:(i) retrieval algorithms for the surface soil moisture from active and passive microwave remote sensing,(ii) estimation of actual evapotranspiration from optical remote sensing(MODIS),(iii) coupled surface-ground water hydrological models,(iv) estimation of soil hydraulic properties with their uncertainties, and(v) assimilation framework specific to hydrological modelling.
To calibrate/validate the retrieval algorithms and to test the coupled model and the assimilation framework developed, field measurements were carried out in the BerambadI experimental watershed located in the Kabini river basin. The surface soil moisture in 50 field plots, profile soil moisture up to 1m depth in 20 field plots, and ground water level in 200 bore wells were measured. Twelve images of ENVISAT, seven teen images of RADARSAT-2, along with AMSR-E and MODIS data were used. These data pertained to different durations during the period 2008 to 2011,the details of which are given in Chapter 3.
The approach for the retrieval of surface soil moisture and the associated uncertainty from active and passive microwave remote sensing is given in Chapter 4. Surface soil moisture was retrieved for six vegetation classes using the linear regression model and copulas. Three types of copulas(Clayton, Frank and Gumbel) were investigated. It was found that the ensemble mean simulated using the linear regression model and three copulas was nearly same. The copulas were found to be superior than the linear regression model when comparing the distributions of the mean of the generated ensemble. Among the copulas it was observed that the Clayton copula performed better in the lower and middle ranges of backscatter coefficient, while the Gumbel and Frank copulas were found to be superior in the upper ranges of backscatter coefficients. The range of RMSE was approximatively 4cm3cm−3 indicating that the retrieval from ENVISAT/RADARSAT-2 was good. ACDF based approach was proposed to retrieve the surface soil moisture map for the watershed with a spatial resolution of 100m x 100m ( i.e one hectare). The map of the uncertainty in the retrieved surface soil moisture was also prepared using the Clayton copula. The AMSR-E surface soil moisture product was calibrated for the watershed during the period 2008 to 2011, using the map generated from the ENVISAT/RADARSAT data. They Clayton copula was used to generate the ensemble of the corrected AMSR-E surface soil moisture. The standard deviation of the generated ensemble varied from 0.01 to 0.03cm3cm−3 ,hence the derived surface soil moisture product for Berambadi was found to be good.
In the Chapter 5, a one dimensional soil moisture model was developed based on the numerical solution of the Richards’ equation using finite difference method and inverse modeling was carried out using the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation(GLUE) approach for estimating the soil hydraulic parameters of the van Genuchten(VG) model and their uncertainty. The parameters were estimated from the two field sites(Berambadi and Wailapally watershed in South India) and from laboratory evaporation experiment for the Wailapally site. It was found that the GLUE approach was able to provide good uncertainty bounds for the soil hydraulic parameters. The uncertainty in the estimates from the field experiment was found to be higher than from the laboratory evaporation experiment for both water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves. The saturated soil moisture(θs )and shape parameter (n) of VG model estimated from the laboratory evaporation and field experiment were found to be the same, and further more they showed a lower uncertainty from both the experiments. Moreover, the residual soil moisture (θr), inverse of capillary fringe thickness (α) and saturated hydraulic conductivity( KS) showed a relatively higher uncertainty. In the Berambadi watershed ,the inverse modeling was performed in three bare field plots, and it was found that ﬁeld plots which had higher θs showed a relatively higher actual evapotranspiration (AET) and lower potential recharge.
In Chapter 6, the retrieval of profile soil moisture up to 2m by assimilation of surface soil moisture was investigated by performing synthetic experiments on six soil types. The measured surface soil moisture over top 5cm depth was assimilated into the one dimensional soil moisture model to retrieve the profile soil moisture. Even though the assimilation of surface soil moisture helped in improving the profile soil moisture for the six soil types, the bias was observed. To reduce the bias, pseudo observations of profile soil moisture were generated and used in addition to the surface soil moisture in the assimilation altogether. These pseudo observations were generated using the linear relationship existing between the surface and profile soil moisture. A significant bias reduction was found to be feasible by using this method when pseudo observations beyond 75cm depth were used then there was no significant improvement.
A coupled surface-ground water model was developed, which had 5 layers for the vadose zone and one layer for the ground water zone, in order to consider the major hydrological processes from ground surface to ground water table in a semi-arid watershed. The details of the coupled model were described in Chapter 7. The major aim of this model was to be able to use remotely sensed data of surface soil moisture and evapotranspiration to simulate recharge. The model was tested by applying in a lumped framework to the field data set in the Berambadi watershed for the year 2010 to 2011. The performance of the model was evaluated with the measured watershed average root zone soil moisture and ground water levels. The watershed average root zone soil moisture was obtained by averaging the field measurements from 20 plots and average ground water level was obtained by averaging the field measurement from 200 bore wells. In order to assimilate the AET into the coupled model, the daily AET at a spatial resolution of 1km was estimated from MODIS data. The AET was validated in one forested and four agricultural sites in the watershed. The validation was based on the comparison with AET simulated from water balance models. For agricultural plots the STICS (crop model) and for the forested site the COMFORT (hydrological) model were used. The AET from the MODIS showed a reasonably good match with both the forested and agricultural plots at the annual scale (for the crop model approximately 4-5 months). Model simulations were carried out with and without assimilating the remotely sensed data and the performance was evaluated. It was found that the assimilation helped in capturing the trends in deeper layer soil moisture and groundwater level.
At the end, in Chapter 8 the major conclusions drawn from the various chapters are summarized.2016-02-29T18:30:00ZLower Bound Limit Analysis Applications For Solving Planar Stability Problems In GeomechanicsBhattacharya, Paramitahttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/23772014-09-04T10:00:28Z2014-09-03T18:30:00ZTitle: Lower Bound Limit Analysis Applications For Solving Planar Stability Problems In Geomechanics
Authors: Bhattacharya, Paramita
Abstract: Limit analysis based upon the theory of plasticity is one of the very useful numerical techniques to determine the failure loads of different civil and mechanical engineering structures for a material following an associated flow rule. The limiting values of the collapse loads, namely, lower and upper bounds, can be bracketed quite accurately with the application of the lower and upper bound theorems of the limit analysis. With the advancement of the finite elements and different robust optimization techniques, the numerical limit analysis approach in association with finite elements is becoming very popular to assess the stability of various complicated structures. Although two different optimization methods, namely, linear programming and nonlinear programming, have been both successfully implemented by various researchers for solving different stability problems in geomechanics, the linear programming method is employed in the present thesis due to its inherent advantage in implementation and ease in achieving the convergence. The objectives of the present thesis are (i) to improve upon the existing lower bound limit analysis method, in combination with finite elements and linear programming, with an intention of reducing the computational time and the associated memory requirement, and (ii) to apply the existing lower bound finite element limit analysis to various important planar stability problems in geotechnical engineering.
With reference to the first objective of the thesis, two new methods have been introduced in this thesis to improve upon the existing computational procedure while solving the geomechanics stability problem with the usage of the limit analysis, finite elements and linear programming. In the first method, namely, the method-I, the order of the yield polygon within the chosen domain is varied, based on the proximity of the stress state to the yield, such that a higher order polygon needs not to be used everywhere in the problem domain. In the second method, the method-II, it has been intended to use only a few selected sides, but not all, of the higher order yield polygon which are being used to linearize the Mohr-Coulomb yield function. The proposed two methods have been applied to compute the ultimate bearing capacity of smooth as well as rough strip footings for various soil frictional angles. It has been noticed that both the proposed new methods reduce the CPU time and the total number of inequality constraints required as compared to the existing lower bound linear programming method used in literature.
With reference to the second objective, a few important planar stability problems in geomechanics associated with interference of footings and vertical anchors have been solved in the present thesis. Footings are essentially used to transfer the compressive loads of the super structures to underlying soil media. On the other hand, vertical anchors are used for generating passive supports to retaining walls, sheet piles and bulkheads. A large number of research investigations have been reported in literature to compute the collapse load for a single isolated strip footing and a single vertical anchor. It is a common practice to estimate the bearing capacity of footings or pullout capacity of anchors without considering the effect of interference. There are, however, clear evidences from the available literature that (i) the ultimate bearing capacity of footings, and (ii) the ultimate pullout capacity of anchors, are significantly affected by their interference effect. Based on different available methods, the interference of footings, in a group of two footings as well as an infinite number of multiple footings, has been examined by different researchers in order to compute the ultimate bearing capacity considering the group effect. However, there is no research study to find the ultimate bearing capacity of interfering footings with the usage of the lower bound limit analysis. In the present thesis, the ultimate bearing capacity of two and an infinite number of multiple strip footings placed on sandy soil with horizontal ground surface, has been determined. The analysis has been performed for smooth as well as rough footings. The failure loads for interfering footings are found to be always greater than the single isolated footing. The effect of the footings' interference is expressed in terms of an efficiency factor ( ξγ); where, ξγ is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of failure load for a footing of width B in presence of the other footing to the magnitude of failure load of an isolated strip footing having the same width. The effect of the interference on the failure load (i) for rough footings becomes always greater than smooth footings, (ii) increases with an increase in soil frictional angle φ, and (iii) becomes almost negligible beyond the spacing, S > 3B. It is observed that the failure load for a footing in a group of an infinite number of multiple strip footings becomes always greater than that for two interfering footings.
Attempts have been made in this thesis to investigate the group effect of two vertical anchors on their horizontal pullout resistance (PuT). The anchors are considered to be embedded at a certain clear spacing (S) along the same vertical plane. The group effect has been studied separately for anchors embedded in (i) sandy soil, and (ii) undrained clay, respectively. For anchors embedded in clays, an increase of soil cohesion with depth, in a linear fashion, has also been taken into consideration. The magnitude of PuT has been obtained in terms of a group efficiency factor, ηγ for sand and ηc for clay, with respect to the failure load for a single isolated vertical plate with the same H/B. The pullout capacity of a group of two anchors either in sand or in undrained clay becomes quite extensive as compared to a single isolated anchor. The magnitudes of ηγ and ηc become maximum corresponding to a certain critical value of S/B, which has been found to lie generally between 0.5 and 1. The value of ηγ for a given S/B has been found to become larger for greater values of H/B, φ, and δ. For greater values of H/B, the group effect becomes more significant in contributing the pullout resistance.
The horizontal pullout capacity of a single isolated vertical anchor embedded in sand in the presence of pseudo static horizontal earthquake body forces has also been determined by using the lower bound finite element limit analysis. The variation of the pullout factor Fγ with changes in the embedment ratio of the smooth and rough anchor plates for different values of horizontal earthquake acceleration coefficient ( αh) has been investigated. The analysis clearly reveals that the pullout resistance decreases quite significantly with an increase in the magnitude of the earthquake acceleration coefficient.
For the various problems selected in the present thesis, the failure patterns have also been exclusively drawn in order to understand the development of the plastic zones within the chosen domain for solving a given problem. The results obtained from the analysis, for the various problems taken up in this thesis, have been thoroughly compared with those reported in literature.2014-09-03T18:30:00ZStudies On Fatigue Crack Propagation In Cementitious Materials : A Dimensional Analysis ApproachRay, Sonalisahttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/23712014-08-19T06:12:53Z2014-08-18T18:30:00ZTitle: Studies On Fatigue Crack Propagation In Cementitious Materials : A Dimensional Analysis Approach
Authors: Ray, Sonalisa
Abstract: Crack propagation in structures when subjected to fatigue loading, follows three different phases namely - short crack growth, stable crack growth and unstable crack growth. Accurate fatigue life prediction demands the consideration of every crack propagation phase rather than only the stable crack growth stage. Further, the use of existing crack growth laws in structures with small cracks under-predicts the growth rate compared to experimentally observed ones, thereby leading to an unsafe design and keeping the structure in a potentially dangerous state. In the present work, an attempt is made to establish fatigue crack propagation laws for plain concrete, reinforced concrete and concrete-concrete jointed interfaces from first principles using the concepts of dimensional analysis and self-similarity. Different crack growth laws are proposed to understand the behavior in each of the three regimes of the fatigue crack growth curve. Important crack growth characterizing material and geometrical parameters for each zone are included in the proposed analytical models. In real life applications to structures, the amplitude of cyclic loading rarely remains constant and is subjected to a wide spectrum of load amplitudes. Furthermore, the crack growth behavior changes in the presence of high amplitude load spikes within a constant amplitude history and this is incorporated in the model formulation. Using scaling laws, an improved understanding of the scaling behavior on different parameters is achieved. The models describing different regimes of crack propagation are finally unified to obtain the entire crack growth curve and compute the total fatigue life.
In addition, crack growth analysis is performed for a reinforced concrete member by modifying the model derived for plain concrete in the Paris regime. Energy dissipation occurring due to shake-down phenomenon in steel reinforcement is addressed. The bond-slip mechanism which is of serious concern in reinforced concrete members is included in the study and a method is proposed for the prediction of residual moment carrying capacity as a function of relative crack depth.
The application of the proposed analytical model in the computation of fatigue crack growth is demonstrated on three practical problems – beam in flexure, concrete arch bridge and a patch repaired beam. Through a sensitivity study, the influence of different parameters on the crack growth behavior is highlighted.2014-08-18T18:30:00Z