etd@IISc Collection:http://hdl.handle.net/2005/422016-07-12T15:43:00Z2016-07-12T15:43:00ZProlate Shaped Dark Matter Halo And The Galactic WarpRahul Nath, Rhttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/25222016-04-26T09:57:49Z2016-04-25T18:30:00ZTitle: Prolate Shaped Dark Matter Halo And The Galactic Warp
Authors: Rahul Nath, R
Abstract: The physical explanation for the existence of the galactic warp is one of the major research areas in Astronomy. People have proposed various theories but nobody has yet given a convincing explanation. Most of the spiral galaxies are observed to be warped which reveals that the galactic warp is a stable characteristic. In the theory of kinematic bending wave, warp is considered as a wave that is propagated through the galactic disk with a speed called pattern speed.
If the pattern initially had straight line of nodes, according to bending wave theory, the warp would tend to wind up rapidly in the gravitational field of galactic disk. But still we observe warped galaxies in the sky. In the literature, it has been claimed that the winding problem of galactic warp may be solved by incorporating the effect of gravitational field of the dark matter halo in which the galactic disk is embedded. Recently some works on the dynamics of galactic disk claim that the shape of the dark matter halo is pro late spheroid. In this thesis, the effect of the gravitational field of a prolate spheroidal dark matter halo with varying eccentricity to the galactic warp is calculated and discussed.
Chapter1 gives the general introduction of the topics discussed in the following chapters. The structure of the spiral galaxy, their classifications, and the disk dynamics are discussed in the first few sections. One of the revolutionary concepts that emerged in the previous century was the existence of the dark matter. Presently tracing the mass distribution and the constituent particles of dark matter is one of the major research areas in theoretical and experimental physics. In this thesis, the effect of a particular type of mass distribution in dark matter halo on the warp is discussed in detail.
In the next few sections, the following topics are discussed namely; how the concept of dark matter came into astrophysics, how to measure the total mass inside a given radius and what are the different distributions used for various purposes. A new theory called Modified Newtonian Mechanism was also proposed in the previous century as an alternative to the dark matter concept which is also discussed briefly. Kinematic bending wave theory and the winding problem of the galactic warp is also discussed in detail. In the last section a relation between the pattern speed of the warp and the shape of the dark matter halo is obtained.
The calculation of the potential of a prolate spheroidal mass distribution with varying eccentricity is not done in any literature as we know. The calculation of the potential and the patten speed of prolate spheroidal mass distributions and of the galactic disk are described in chapter 2. The calculations of oblate spheroidal mass distribution are also discussed in this chapter but that is out of main theme.
In chapter 3 we apply the equations obtained in the Chapter 2 to one simple toy model and to the Galaxy. The rotation curve and the pattern speed of a warp in the gravitational ﬁeld of prolate spheroidal mass distribution of varying eccentricity are described. Usually the Milky Way disk is treated as an in infinitesimally thin disk but for our calculations the three dimensional but thin disk is used. The usually people use some approximation to calculate the potential due to galactic infinitesimal thin disk. The difference of the work from earlier works done by different people(with the approximation mentioned in above line) is also discussed in this Chapter. Chapter 4 discusses the summary of the entire work.2016-04-25T18:30:00ZStudies Of Electronic, Magnetic And Entanglement Properties Of Correlated Models In Low-Dimensional SystemsSahoo, Shaonhttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/24802015-09-04T09:41:54Z2015-09-03T18:30:00ZTitle: Studies Of Electronic, Magnetic And Entanglement Properties Of Correlated Models In Low-Dimensional Systems
Authors: Sahoo, Shaon
Abstract: This thesis consists of six chapters. The first chapter gives an introduction to the field of low-dimensional magnetic and electronic systems and relevant numerical techniques. The recent developments in molecular magnets are highlighted. The numerical techniques are reviewed along with their advantages and disadvantages from the present perspective. Study of entanglement of a system can give a great insight into the system. At the last part of this chapter a general overview is given regarding entanglement, its measures and its significance in studying many-body systems.
Chapter 2 deals with the technique that has been developed by us for the full symmetry adaptation of non-relativistic Hamiltonians. It is advantageous both computationally and physically/chemically to exploit both spin and spatial symmetries of a system. It has been a long-standing problem to target a state which has definite total spin and also belongs to a definite irreducible representation of a point group, particularly for non-Abelian point groups. A very general technique is discussed in this chapter which is a hybrid method based on valence-bond basis and the basis of the z-component of the total spin. This technique is not only applicable to a system with arbitrary site spins and belonging to any point group symmetry, it is also quite easy to implement computationally. To demonstrate the power of the method, it is applied to the molecular magnetic system, Cu6Fe8, with cubic symmetry.
In chapter 3, the extension of the previous hybrid technique to electronic systems is discussed. The power of the method is illustrated by applying it to a model icosahedral half-filled electronic system. This model spans a huge Hilbert space (dimension 1,778,966) and is in the largest non-Abelian point group. All the eigenstates of the model are obtained using our technique.
Chapter 4 deals with the thermodynamic properties of an important class of single-chain magnets (SCMs). This class of SCMs has alternate isotropic spin-1/2 units and anisotropic high spin units with the anisotropy axes being non-collinear. Here anisotropy is assumed to be large and negative, as a result, anisotropic units behave like canted spins at low temperatures; but even then simple Ising-type model does not capture the essential physics of the system due to quantum mechanical nature of the isotropic units. A transfer matrix (TM) method is developed to study statistical behavior of this class of SCMs. For the first time, it is also discussed in detail that how weak inter-chain interactions can be treated by a TM method. The finite size effect is also discussed which becomes important for low temperature dynamics. This technique is applied to a real helical chain magnet, which has been studied experimentally.
In the fifth chapter a bipartite entanglement entropy of finite systems is studied using exact diagonalization techniques to examine how the entanglement changes in the presence of long-range interactions. The PariserParrPople model with long-range interactions is used for this purpose and corresponding results are com-pared with those for the Hubbard and Heisenberg models with short-range interactions. This study helps understand why the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) technique is so successful even in the presence of long-range interactions in the PPP model. It is also investigated if the symmetry properties of a state vector have any significance in relation to its entanglement. Finally, an interesting observation is made on the entanglement profiles of different states, across the full energy spectrum, in comparison with the corresponding profile of the density of states.
The entanglement can be localized between two noncomplementary parts of a many-body system by performing local measurements on the rest of the system. This localized entanglement (LE) depends on the chosen basis set of measurement (BSM). In this chapter six, an optimality condition for the LE is derived, which would be helpful in finding optimal values of the LE, besides, can also be of use in studying mixed states of a general bipartite system. A canonical way of localizing entanglement is further discussed, where the BSM is not chosen arbitrarily, rather, is fully determined by the properties of a system. The LE obtained in this way, called the localized entanglement by canonical measurement (LECM), is not only easy to calculate practically, it provides a nice way to define the entanglement length. For spin-1/2 systems, the LECM is shown to be optimal in some important cases. At the end of this chapter, some numerical results are presented for j1 −j2 spin model to demonstrate how the LECM behaves.2015-09-03T18:30:00ZElasticity And Structural Phase Transitions Of Nanoscale ObjectsMogurampelly, Santoshhttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/24982015-12-14T10:17:11Z2015-12-13T18:30:00ZTitle: Elasticity And Structural Phase Transitions Of Nanoscale Objects
Authors: Mogurampelly, Santosh
Abstract: Elastic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT), boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT), double stranded DNA (dsDNA), paranemic-juxtapose crossover (PX-JX) DNA and dendrimer bound DNA are discussed in this thesis. Structural phase transitions of nucleic acids induced by external force, carbon nanotubes and graphene substrate are also studied extensively. Electrostatic interactions have a strong effect on the elastic properties of BNNTs due to large partial atomic charges on boron and nitrogen atoms. We have computed Young’s modulus (Y ) and shear modulus (G) of BNNT and CNT as a function of the nanotube radius and partial atomic charges on boron and nitrogen atoms using molecular mechanics calculation. Our calculation shows that Young’s modulus of BNNTs increases with increase in magnitude of the partial atomic charges on B and N atoms and can be larger than the Young’s modulus of CNTs of same radius. Shear modulus, on the other hand depends weakly on the magnitude of partial atomic charges and is always less than the shear modulus of the CNT. The values obtained for Young’s modulus and shear modulus are in excellent agreement with the available experimental results. We also study the elasticity of dsDNA using equilibrium fluctuation methods as well as nonequilibrium stretching simulations. The results obtained from both methods quantitatively agree with each other. The end-to-end length distribution P(ρ) and angle distribution P(θ) of the dsDNA has a Gaussian form which gives stretch modulus (γ1) to be 708 pN and persistence length (Lp) to be 42 nm, respectively. When dsDNA is stretched along its helix axis, it undergoes a large conformational change and elongates about 1.7 times its initial contour length at a critical force. Applying a force perpendicular to the DNA helix axis, dsDNA gets unzipped and separated into two single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). DNA unzipping is a fundamental process in DNA replication. As the force at one end of the DNA is increased the DNA starts melting above a critical force depending on the pulling direction. The critical force fm , at which dsDNA melts completely decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. The melting force in the case of unzipping is smaller compared to the melting force when the dsDNA is pulled along the helical axis. In the case of melting through unzipping, the double-strand separation has jumps which correspond to the different energy minima arising due to sequence of different base-pairs. Similar force-extension curve has also been observed when crossover DNA molecules are stretched along the helix axis. In the presence of mono-valent Na+ counterions, we find that the stretch modulus (γ1 ) of the paranemic crossover (PX) and its topoisomer juxtapose (JX) DNA structure is significantly higher (30 %) compared to normal B-DNA of the same sequence and length. When the DNA motif is surrounded by a solvent of divalent Mg2+ counterions, we find an enhanced rigidity compared to in Na+ environment due to the electrostatic screening effects arising from the divalent nature of Mg2+ counterions. This is the first direct determination of the mechanical strength of these crossover motifs which can be useful for the design of suitable DNA motifs for DNA based nanostructures and nanomechanical devices with improved structural rigidity. Negatively charged DNA can be compacted by positively charged dendrimer and the degree of compaction is a delicate balance between the strength of the electrostatic interaction and the elasticity of DNA. When the dsDNA is compacted by dendrimer, the stretch modulus, γ1 and persistence length, Lp decreases dramatically due to backbone charge neutralization of dsDNA by dendrimer. We also study the effect of CNT and graphene substrate on the elastic as well as adsorption properties of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and dsDNA. Our results show that siRNA strongly binds to CNT and graphene surface via unzipping its base-pairs and the propensity of unzipping increases with the increase in the diameter of the CNTs and is maximum on graphene. The unzipping and subsequent wrapping events are initiated and driven by van der Waals interactions between the aromatic rings of siRNA nucleobases and the CNT/graphene surface. However, dsDNA of the same sequence undergoes much less unzipping and wrapping on the CNT/graphene due to smaller interaction energy of thymidine of dsDNA with the CNT/graphene compared to that of uridine of siRNA. Unzipping probability distributions fitted to single exponential function give unzipping time (τ) of the order of few nanoseconds which decrease exponentially with temperature. From the temperature variation of unzipping time we estimate the free energy barrier to unzipping. We have also investigated the binding of siRNA to CNT by translocating siRNA inside CNT and find that siRNA spontaneously translocates inside CNT of various diameters and chiralities. Free en- ergy profiles show that siRNA gains free energy while translocating inside CNT and the barrier for siRNA exit from CNT ranges from 40 to 110 kcal/mol depending on CNT chirality and salt concentration. The translocation time τ decreases with the increase of CNT diameter having a critical diameter of 24 A for the translocation. After the optimal binding of siRNA to CNT/graphene, the complex is very stable which can serve as siRNA delivery agent for biomedical applications. Since siRNA has to undergo unwinding process in the presence of RNA-induced silencing complex, our proposed delivery mechanism by single wall CNT possesses potential advantages in achieving RNA interference (RNAi).2015-12-13T18:30:00ZMesophases Of Active Matter : Translational Order, Critical Rheology And ElectrostaticsAdhyapak, Tapan Chandrahttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/25192016-04-26T06:51:52Z2016-04-25T18:30:00ZTitle: Mesophases Of Active Matter : Translational Order, Critical Rheology And Electrostatics
Authors: Adhyapak, Tapan Chandra
Abstract: This thesis consists of research work in the broad area of soft condensed matter theory with a focus on active matter. The study of long wavelength, low frequency collective behavior of active particles (bacterial suspensions, fish schools, motor-microtubule extracts, active gels) forms an interesting modification to liquid-crystal hydrodynamics, in which the constituent particles carry permanent stresses that stir the fluid. Activity introduces novel instabilities and many novel aspects emerge. Our works focus on the dynamics, order, fluctuations and instabilities in these systems. In particular, we investigated the dynamics, order and fluctuation properties emerging from effective hydrodynamic descriptions of translationally ordered active matter and also studied those in microwave-driven quantum Hall nematics. We also investigated the rheological properties of active suspensions subjected to an applied orienting field. A summary of the works carried out is as follows.
Translationally ordered active phases – active smectics and active cholesterics: Active or self-propelled particles consume and dissipate energy generating permanent stresses that stir the fluid around them. The collective behavior of systems of active particles, in systems with translational order, pose interesting questions and possibilities of new physics that differ strikingly from those in systems at thermal equilibrium with the same spatial symmetry. We developed the hydrodynamic equations of motion for (a) an active system with spontaneously broken translational symmetry in one direction, i.e., smectic and (b) the simplest uniaxially ordered phase of active chiral objects, namely, an active cholesteric. We analyze the fluctuation properties as well as the nature of characteristic instabilities that these systems can display and make a number of predictions. For example, in the case of an active smectic, we show that active stresses generate an effective active layer tension which, if positive, sup-presses the Landau-Peierls effect, leading to long-range smectic order in dimension d =3 and quasi-long-range in d =2, in sharp contrast with thermal equilibrium systems. Negative active layer tension in bulk systems, however, lead to a spontaneous Helfrich-Hurault undulation instability of the layers, accompanied by spontaneous flow. Also, active smectics, unlike orientationally ordered active systems, normally have finite concentration fluctuations. Similarly, for the case of cholesterics we show that cholesteric elasticity intervenes to suppress some of the instabilities present in active nematics.
xi
Numerical simulation of active smectics: We present results from a Brownian Dynamics simulation, with no hydrodynamic interaction, of a system of apolar active particles form-ing translational liquid-crystalline order in a suspension. The particles interact through a prolate-ellipsoidal Gay-Berne potential. We model activity minimally through different noise temperatures for movement along and normal to the orientation axis of each particle. We present preliminary results on the disruptive effect of activity on smectic order for the parameter values investigated. Future work will test the predictions of our theory [1] on active smectics.
Rheology of active suspensions near field-induced critical points : Shear induces orientation of active stresses in a suspension, through flow alignment. Depending on the sign, activity then either enhances or reduces the viscosity. The change in viscosity, in the zero frequency limit, is proportional to the product of the magnitude of active stress and the system relaxation time. A strong enough orienting field can make the system approach a critical point and the relaxation time diverges. We show that, this results in the divergence of viscosity at zero frequency making the system strongly viscoelastic. Depending on the sign, activity strengthens or reduces the effect of the field. We also investigate the rheological property of an active suspension with mixed polar and nematic oreder.
Active quantum Hall systems: We construct the hydrodynamic theory for a 2d charged active nematic with 3d electrostatics. We have investigated the interplay of the Coulomb interaction and activity in these systems. We show that activity competes to enhance the charge density fluctuations normally suppressed by long-ranged Coulomb interactions. The charge structure factor Sq of the corresponding passive charged nematic goes to zero as q, whereas in charged active nematics, activity leads to a nonvanishing charge structure factor at small wavenumber. We also show how the effect of an applied magnetic field can be incorporated into the dynamics of the system and leave scope for further studies on these effects.2016-04-25T18:30:00Z