etd@IISc Community:http://hdl.handle.net/2005/52017-03-22T15:15:18Z2017-03-22T15:15:18ZStudies On The Viability Of The Boundary Element Method For The Real-Time Simulation Of Biological OrgansKirana Kumara, Phttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/25532016-09-02T12:11:06Z2016-09-01T18:30:00ZTitle: Studies On The Viability Of The Boundary Element Method For The Real-Time Simulation Of Biological Organs
Authors: Kirana Kumara, P
Abstract: Realistic and real-time computational simulation of biological organs (e.g., human kidneys, human liver) is a necessity when one tries to build a quality surgical simulator that can simulate surgical procedures involving these organs. Currently deformable models, spring-mass models, or finite element models are widely used to achieve the realistic simulations and/or the real-time performance. It is widely agreed that continuum mechanics based numerical techniques are preferred over deformable models or spring-mass models, but those techniques are computationally expensive and hence the higher accuracy offered by those numerical techniques come at the expense of speed. Hence there is a need to study the speed of different numerical techniques, while keeping an eye on the accuracy offered by those numerical techniques. Such studies are available for the Finite Element Method (FEM) but rarely available for the Boundary Element Method (BEM). Hence the present work aims to conduct a study on the viability of BEM for the real-time simulation of biological organs, and the present study is justified by the fact that BEM is considered to be inherently efficient when compared to mesh based techniques like FEM. A significant portion of literature on the real-time simulation of biological organs suggests the use of BEM to achieve better simulations. When one talks about the simulation of biological organs, one needs to have the geometry of a biological organ in hand. Geometry of biological organs of interest is not readily available many a times, and hence there is a need to extract the three dimensional (3D) geometry of biological organs from a stack of two dimensional (2D) scanned images. Software packages that can readily reconstruct 3D geometry of biological organs from 2D images are expensive. Hence, a novel procedure that requires only a few free software packages to obtain the geometry of biological organs from 2D image sequences is presented. The geometry of a pig liver is extracted from CT scan images for illustration purpose. Next, the three dimensional geometry of human kidney (left and right kidneys of male, and left and right kidneys of female) is obtained from the Visible Human Dataset (VHD). The novel procedure presented in this work can be used to obtain patient specific organ geometry from patient specific images, without requiring any of the many commercial software packages that can readily do the job. To carry out studies on the speed and accuracy of BEM, a source code for BEM is needed. Since the BEM code for 3D elasticity is not readily available, a BEM code that can solve 3D linear elastostatic problems without accounting for body forces is developed from scratch. The code comes in three varieties: a MATLAB version, a Fortran version (sequential version), and a Fortran version (parallelized version). This is the first free and open source BEM code for 3D elasticity. The developed code is used to carry out studies on the viability of BEM for the real-time simulation of biological organs, and a few representative problems involving kidneys and liver are found to give accurate solutions. The present work demonstrates that it is possible to simulate linear elastostatic behaviour in real-time using BEM without resorting to any type of precomputations, on a computer cluster by fully parallelizing the simulations and by performing simulations on different number of processors and for different block sizes. Since it is possible to get a complete solution in real-time, there is no need to separately prove that every type of cutting, suturing etc. can be simulated in real-time. Future work could involve incorporating nonlinearities into the simulations. Finally, a BEM based simulator may be built, after taking into account details like rendering.2016-09-01T18:30:00ZLES Study Of Free Jets And Jets Impinging On Cuboidal CavityVaradharajan, Ramanathanhttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/25702016-09-15T12:13:15Z2016-09-14T18:30:00ZTitle: LES Study Of Free Jets And Jets Impinging On Cuboidal Cavity
Authors: Varadharajan, Ramanathan
Abstract: Numerical solutions based on explicit filtered LES for computing turbulent flow field, of free round jets and impinging round jet on cuboidal cavities, are presented and discussed in this dissertation work. One-parameter fourth-order explicit filter is implemented to account for sub-grid scale effects. Compact difference schemes proposed by Hixon & Turkel involving
only bidiagonal matrices is used to evaluate spatial derivatives. Compact schemes with overall fourth order accuracy and eight order accuracy are used in simulating free and impinging jets respectively. Simulations of free round jets are used for validating LES approach. 6 simulations of free round jet, in three levels of computational grids at three different Reynolds number, are performed to understand the effects of Reynolds number and turbulent length scales. Energy in the smaller length scales are found to be higher for higher Reynolds number. Potential core collapse is found to occur at shorter distance for high Reynolds number jets. Accurate computation of smaller length scales of turbulence is found to be essential for high Reynolds number flows. LES of subsonic impinging jets are performed on cuboidal cavities to understand the physical phenomenon. High intensity, low
frequency sounds are captured, in the presence of cavity, as reported by other research works. Lip-thickness is found to have an effect on the intensity of sound produced. Matching of Jet shear layer roll up frequency with cavity’s natural frequency to produce resonance phenomenon is attempted and observations are presented.2016-09-14T18:30:00ZDynamics Of Cricket Song Towards Nature-inspired MEMS SpeakersGodthi, Vamsyhttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/25712016-09-15T15:20:57Z2016-09-14T18:30:00ZTitle: Dynamics Of Cricket Song Towards Nature-inspired MEMS Speakers
Authors: Godthi, Vamsy
Abstract: The clever designs of natural transducers are a great source of inspiration for man-made systems. At small length scales, there are many transducers in nature that we are now beginning to understand and learn from. Here, we present an example of such a transducer that is used by field crickets to produce their characteristic song. This transducer uses two distinct components—a file of discrete teeth and a plectrum that engages intermittently to produce a series of impulses forming the loading, and an approximately triangular membrane, called the harp, that acts as a resonator and vibrates in response to the impulse-train loading. The file-and-plectrum act as a frequency multiplier taking the low wing beat frequency as the input and converting it into an impulse-train of sufficiently high frequency close to the resonant frequency of the harp. The forced vibration response results in beats producing the characteristic sound of the cricket song. Based on various experimental observations reported in the literature, we model the sound production mechanism as consisting of three stages—actuator, frequency multiplier, and amplifier. We then examine how different features of the forewing govern the sound production. With careful experiments on the harp, we estimate the actual modulus of the harp cuticle and also measure the morphological features of the forewings of different field cricket species. Using this data, we construct a finite element model of the harp and carry out modal analysis to determine its natural frequency. We fine tune the model with appropriate elastic boundary conditions to match the natural frequency of the harp of a particular species—Gryllus bimaculatus. We model impulsive loading based on a loading scheme reported in the literature and predict the transient response of the harp. We show that the harp indeed produces beats and its frequency content matches closely that of the recorded song. Subsequently, we use our FEM model to show that the natural design is quite robust to structural perturbations in the file. The characteristic song frequency produced is unaffected by small variations in the spacing of file-teeth and even by larger gaps. We then attempt to predict a scaling law that crickets must use for spectrum allocation. We use our FEM model, with measurements and computations, to arrive at a predictive model that relates call frequencies of field crickets to the harp dimensions. We verify the validity of this model by using the measured dimensions of harps of nine field cricket species. We then use our model to provide possible explanations as to why the song frequency of various field crickets in our study is bounded between 3.1 kHz and 6.8 kHz. We also show that we are faced with similar challenges as crickets when designing miniature MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) speakers. We present a design of MEMS speakers that is inspired by how the crickets actuate. We have been able to realize our first prototypes using simple fabrication processes. By electrostatically actuating the MEMS devices, we obtain a sound pressure of 70 dB SPL at a distance of 10 cm. We believe that with a few design and fabrication iterations, we will be able to achieve a much higher sound pressure output from the MEMS speakers.2016-09-14T18:30:00ZEffect Of Processing And Test Variables On The Deformation Characteristics Of TantalumBandyopadhyay, Hindolhttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/25952016-11-23T07:05:18Z2016-11-22T18:30:00ZTitle: Effect Of Processing And Test Variables On The Deformation Characteristics Of Tantalum
Authors: Bandyopadhyay, Hindol
Abstract: The dependence of flow stress of body centered cubic metals on variables such as strain rate, temperature, strain and microstructural is a research area of continued interest. Recently, there has been renewed interest in deformation of fine grained BCC metals, which display characteristics that are different from their coarse-grained counterparts. Deformation mechanisms, strain-rate and temperature dependence, and strain hardening characteristics of fine-grained BCC metals are not well understood. The aim of this thesis is to understand the effect of strain-rate, temperature, strain and microstructure (i.e., grain size) on the mechanical response of poly¬crystalline tantalum. Among the topics addressed were constitutive modeling of flow stress, understanding the microstructural origins of strain hardening, and characterizing the effect of severe plastic deformation (SPD) on microstructure and mechanical properties. Rolling and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) were among the processing techniques employed. Mechanical testing was conducted over a range of temperatures and strain rates, and this was supported by a slew of microscopic characterization methods. It was found that the strain hardening response depends on microstructural evolution at different strain rates. Results indicate that the same thermally activated mechanisms operate in both as-received and processed material and this was found to be the overcoming of Peierls barriers via a double-kink mechanism. Lastly, it was found that the low strain rate sensitivity of SPD processed material was not due to fine grain size, but instead due to high internals stresses.2016-11-22T18:30:00Z