etd@IISc Collection:
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/20
2017-09-24T02:36:17ZSpectral And Temporal Zero-Crossings-Based Signal Analysis
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2660
Title: Spectral And Temporal Zero-Crossings-Based Signal Analysis
Authors: Shenoy, Ravi R
Abstract: We consider real zero-crossing analysis of the real/imaginary parts of the spectrum, namely, spectral zero-crossings (SZCs). The two major contributions are to show that: (i) SZCs provide enable temporal localization of transients; and (b) SZCs are suitable for modeling transient signals. We develop a spectral dual of Kedem’s result linking temporal zero-crossing rate (ZCR) to the spectral centroid. The key requirement is stationarity, which we achieve through random-phase modulations of the time-domain signal. Transient signals are not amenable to modelling in the time domain since they are bursts of energy localized in time and lack structure. We show that the spectrum of transient signals have a rich modulation structure, which leads to an amplitude-modulation – frequency-modulation (AM-FM) model of the spectrum.
We generalize Kedem’s arc-cosine formula for lags greater than one. For the specific case of a sinusoid in white Gaussian noise, He and Kedem devised an iterative filtering algorithm, which leads to a contraction mapping. An autoregressive filter of order one is employed and the location of the pole is the parameter that is updated based on the filtered output. We use the higher-order property, which relates the autocorrelation to the expected ZCR of the filtered process, between lagged ZCR and higher-lag autocorrelation to develop an iterative higher-order autoregressive-filtering scheme, which stabilizes the ZCR and consequently provides robust estimates of the autocorrelation at higher lags.
Next, we investigate ZC properties of critically sampled outputs of a maximally decimated M-channel power complementary analysis filterbank (PCAF) and derive the relationship between the ZCR of the input Gaussian process at lags that are integer multiples of M in terms of the subband ZCRs. Based on this result, we propose a robust autocorrelation estimator for a signal consisting of a sum of sinusoids of fixed amplitudes and uniformly distributed random phases. Robust subband ZCRs are obtained through iterative filtering and the subband variances are estimated using the method-of-moments estimator. We compare the performance of the proposed estimator with the sample auto-correlation estimate in terms of bias, variance, and mean-squared error, and show through simulations that the performance of the proposed estimator is better than the sample auto- correlation for medium to low SNR.
We then consider the ZC statistics of the real/imaginary parts of the discrete Fourier spectrum. We introduce the notion of the spectral zero-crossing rate (SZCR) and show that, for transients, it gives information regarding the location of the transient. We also demonstrate the utility of SZCR to estimate interaural time delay between the left and right head-related impulse responses. The accuracy of interaural time delay plays a vital role in binaural synthesis and a comparison of the performance of the SZCR estimates with that of the cross-correlation estimates illustrate that spectral zeros alone contain enough information for accurately estimating interaural time delay. We provide a mathematical formalism for establishing the dual of the link between zero-crossing rate and spectral centroid. Specifically, we show that the expected SZCR of a stationary spectrum is a temporal centroid. For a deterministic sequence, we obtain the stationary spectrum by modulating the sequence with a random phase unit amplitude sequence and then computing the spectrum. The notion of a stationary spectrum is necessary for deriving counterparts of the results available in temporal zero-crossings literature. The robustness of location information embedded in SZCR is analyzed in presence of a second transient within the observation window, and also in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. A spectral-domain iterative filtering scheme based on autoregressive filters is presented and improvement in the robustness of the location estimates is demonstrated. As an application, we consider epoch estimation in voiced speech signals and show that the location information is accurately estimated using spectral zeros than other techniques.
The relationship between temporal centroid and SZCR also finds applications in frequency-domain linear prediction (FDLP), which is used in audio compression. The prediction coefficients are estimated by solving the Yule-Walker equations constructed from the spectral autocorrelation. We use the relationship between the spectral autocorrelation and temporal centroid to obtain the spectral autocorrelation directly by time-domain windowing without explicitly computing the spectrum. The proposed method leads to identical results as the standard FDLP method but with reduced computational load.
We then develop a SZCs-based spectral-envelope and group-delay (SEGD) model, which finds applications in modelling of non-stationary signals such as Castanets. Taking into account the modulation structure and spectral continuity, local polynomial regression is performed to estimate the GD from the real spectral zeros. The SE is estimated based on the phase function computed from the estimated GD. Since the GD estimate is parametric, the degree of smoothness can be controlled directly. Simulation results based on synthetic transient signals are presented to analyze the noise-robustness of the SE-GD model. Applications to castanet modeling, transient compression, and estimation of the glottal closure instants in speech are shown.2017-09-19T18:30:00ZDesign And Control of Power Converters for Renewable Energy Systems
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2663
Title: Design And Control of Power Converters for Renewable Energy Systems
Authors: Abhijit, K
Abstract: Renewable energy sources normally require power converters to convert their energy into standardized regulated ac output. The motivation for this thesis is to design and control power converters for renewable energy systems to ensure very good power quality, efficiency and reliability. The renewable energy sources considered are low voltage dc sources such as photovoltaic (PV) modules. Two transformer-isolated power circuit topologies with input voltage of less than 50V are designed and developed for low and medium power applications. Various design and control issues of these converters are identified and new solutions are proposed.
For low power rating of a few hundred watts, a line-frequency transformer interfaced inverter is developed. In the grid connected operation, it is observed that this topology injects considerable lower order odd and even harmonics in the grid current. The reasons for this are identified. A new current control method using adaptive harmonic compensation technique and a proportional-resonant-integral (PRI) controller is proposed. The proposed current controller is designed to ensure that the grid current harmonics are within the limits set by the IEEE 1547-2003 standard.
Phase-locked loops (PLLs) are used for grid synchronization of power converters in grid-tied operation and for closed-loop control reference generation. Analysis and design of synchronous reference frame PLL (SRF-PLL) and second-order generalized integrator (SOGI) based PLLs considering unit vector distortion under the possible non-ideal grid conditions of harmonics, unbalance, dc offsets and frequency deviations are proposed and validated. Both SRF-PLL and SOGI-PLL are low-complexity PLLs. The proposed designs achieve fastest settling time for these PLLs for a given worst-case input condition. The harmonic distortion and dc offsets in the resulting unit vectors are limited to be well within the limits set by the IEEE 1547-2003 standard. The proposed designs can be used to achieve very good performance using conventional low-complexity PLLs without the requirement of advanced PLLs which can be computationally intensive.
A high-frequency (HF) transformer interfaced ac link inverter with a lossless snubber is developed medium power level in the order of few kilowatts. The HF transformer makes the topology compact and economical compared to an equally rated line frequency transformer. A new synchronized modulation method is proposed to suppress the possible over-voltages due to current commutation in the leakage inductance of the HF transformer. The effect of circuit non-ideality of turn-on delay time is analyzed. The proposed modulation mitigates the problem of spurious turn-on that can occur due to the turn-on delay time. The HF inverter, rectifier and snubber devices have soft switching with this modulation. A new reliable start-up method is proposed for this inverter topology without any additional start- up circuitry. This solves the problems of over-voltages and inrush currents during start-up.
The overall research work reported in the thesis shows that it is possible to have compact, reliable and high performance power converters for renewable energy conversion systems. It is also shown that high control performance and power quality can be achieved using the proposed control techniques of low implementation complexity.2017-09-19T18:30:00ZOn Maximizing The Performance Of The Bilateral Filter For Image Denoising
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2638
Title: On Maximizing The Performance Of The Bilateral Filter For Image Denoising
Authors: Kishan, Harini
Abstract: We address the problem of image denoising for additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), Poisson noise, and Chi-squared noise scenarios. Thermal noise in electronic circuitry in camera hardware can be modeled as AWGN. Poisson noise is used to model the randomness associated with photon counting during image acquisition. Chi-squared noise statistics are appropriate in imaging modalities such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). AWGN is additive, while Poisson noise is neither additive nor multiplicative. Although Chi-squared noise is derived from AWGN statistics, it is non-additive.
Mean-square error (MSE) is the most widely used metric to quantify denoising performance. In parametric denoising approaches, the optimal parameters of the denoising function are chosen by employing a minimum mean-square-error (MMSE) criterion. However, the dependence of MSE on the noise-free signal makes MSE computation infeasible in practical scenarios. We circumvent the problem by adopting an MSE estimation approach. The ground-truth-independent estimates of MSE are Stein’s unbiased risk estimate (SURE), Poisson unbiased risk estimate (PURE) and Chi-square unbiased risk estimate (CURE) for AWGN, Poison and Chi-square noise models, respectively. The denoising function is optimized to achieve maximum noise suppression by minimizing the MSE estimates.
We have chosen the bilateral filter as the denoising function. Bilateral filter is a nonlinear edge-preserving smoother. The performance of the bilateral filter is governed by the choice of its parameters, which can be optimized to minimize the MSE or its estimate. However, in practical scenarios, MSE cannot be computed due to inaccessibility of the noise-free image. We derive SURE, PURE, and CURE in the context of bilateral filtering and compute the parameters of the bilateral filter that yield the minimum cost (SURE/PURE/CURE). On processing the noisy input with bilateral filter whose optimal parameters are chosen by minimizing MSE estimates (SURE/PURE/CURE), we obtain the estimate closest to the ground truth. We denote the bilateral filter with optimal parameters as SURE-optimal bilateral filter (SOBF), PURE-optimal bilateral filter (POBF) and CURE-optimal bilateral filter (COBF) for AWGN, Poisson and Chi-Squared noise scenarios, respectively.
In addition to the globally optimal bilateral filters (SOBF and POBF), we propose spatially adaptive bilateral filter variants, namely, SURE-optimal patch-based bilateral filter (SPBF) and PURE-optimal patch-based bilateral filter (PPBF). SPBF and PPBF yield significant improvements in performance and preserve edges better when compared with their globally-optimal counterparts, SOBF and POBF, respectively.
We also propose the SURE-optimal multiresolution bilateral filter (SMBF) where we couple SOBF with wavelet thresholding. For Poisson noise suppression, we propose PURE-optimal multiresolution bilateral filter (PMBF), which is the Poisson counterpart of SMBF. We com-pare the performance of SMBF and PMBF with the state-of-the-art denoising algorithms for AWGN and Poisson noise, respectively. The proposed multiresolution-based bilateral filtering techniques yield denoising performance that is competent with that of the state-of-the-art techniques.2017-07-06T18:30:00ZReactive Power Planning And Operation of Power Systems with Wind Farms for Voltage Stability Improvement
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2674
Title: Reactive Power Planning And Operation of Power Systems with Wind Farms for Voltage Stability Improvement
Authors: Moger, Tukaram
Abstract: In recent years, the electric power industry around the world is changing continuously due to transformation from regulated market structure to deregulated market structure. The main aim of the transformation of electric supply industry under open access environment is to overcome the some of the limitations faced by the vertically integrated system. It is believed that this transformation will bring in new technologies, integration of other sources of energy such as wind, solar, fuel cells, bio-gas, etc., which are self sustainable and competitive, and better choice for the consumers and so on. As a result, several new issues and challenges have emerged. One of the main issues in power systems is to support reactive power for maintaining the system voltage profile with an acceptable margin of security and reliability required for system operation.
In this context, the thesis addresses some of the problems related to planning and operation of reactive power in power systems. Studies are mainly focused on steady state operation of grid systems, grid connected wind farms and distribution systems as well.
The reactive power support and loss allocation using Y-bus approach is proposed. It computes the reactive power contribution from various reactive sources to meet the reactive load demand and losses. Further, the allocation of reactive power loss to load or sink buses is also computed. Detailed case studies are carried out on 11-bus equivalent system of Indian southern region power grid under different loading conditions and also tested on 259-bus equivalent system of Indian western region power grid. A comparative analysis is also carried out with the proportional sharing principle and one of the circuit based approach in the literature to highlight the features of the proposed approach.
A new reactive power loss index is proposed for identification of weak buses in the system. The new index is computed from the proposed Y-bus approach for the system under intact condition as well as some severe contingencies cases. Fuzzy logic approach is used to select the important and severe line contingencies from the contingency list. The validation of weak load buses identification from the proposed reactive power loss index with that from other well known existing methods in the literature such as Q-V sensitivity based modal analysis and continuation power flow method is carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed index. Then, a short-term reactive power procurement/optimal reactive power dispatch analysis is also carried out to determine the optimum size of the reactive compensation devices to be placed at the weak buses for reactive compensation performance analysis in the system.
The proposed approach is illustrated on a sample 5-bus system, and tested on sample 10-bus equivalent system and 72-bus equivalent system of Indian southern region power grid. A comprehensive power flow analysis of PQ type models for wind turbine generating units is presented. The diﬀerent PQ type models of fixed/semi-variable speed wind turbine generating units are considered for the studies. In addition, the variable speed wind turbine generating units are considered in fixed power factor mode of operation. Based on these models, a comparative analysis is carried out to assess the impact of wind generation on distribution and transmission systems. 27-bus equivalent distribution test system, 93-bus equivalent test system and SR 297-bus equivalent grid connected wind system are considered for the studies.
Lastly, reactive power coordination for voltage stability improvement in grid connected wind farms with different types of wind turbine generating units based on fuzzy logic approach is presented. In the proposed approach, the load bus voltage deviation is minimized by changing the reactive power controllers according to their sensitivity using fuzzy set theory. The fixed/semi-variable speed wind turbine generating units are also considered in the studies because of its impact on overall system voltage performance even though they do not support the system for voltage unlike variable speed wind generators. 297-bus equivalent and 417-bus equivalent grid connected wind systems are considered to present the simulation results. A comparative analysis is also carried out with the conventional linear programming based reactive power optimization technique to highlight the features of the proposed approach.2017-09-22T18:30:00Z