etd@IISc Collection:
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/33
2016-04-14T10:50:38ZSoil Moisture Modelling, Retrieval From Microwave Remote Sensing And Assimilation In A Tropical Watershed
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2508
Title: Soil Moisture Modelling, Retrieval From Microwave Remote Sensing And Assimilation In A Tropical Watershed
Authors: Sat Kumar, *
Abstract: The knowledge of soil moisture is of pronounced importance in various applications e.g. flood control, agricultural production and effective water resources management. These applications require the knowledge of spatial and temporal variation of the soil moisture in the watershed. There are three approaches of estimating/measuring soil moisture namely,(i) in-situ measurements,(ii) remote sensing, and(iii) hydrological modelling. The in situ techniques of measurement provide relatively accurate information at point scale but are not feasible to gather in large numbers relevant for a watershed. The soil moisture can be simulated by hydrological models at the desired spatial and temporal resolution, but these simulations would often be affected by the uncertainties in the model physics, parameters, forcing, initial and boundary conditions. The remote sensing provides an alternative to retrieve the soil moisture of the surface (top few centimeters ) layer, but even this data is limited by the spatial or temporal resolution, which is satellite dependant.
Hydrological models could be improved by assimilating remotely sensed soil moisture, which requires a retrieval algorithm. In order to develop a retrieval algorithm the satellite data need to be calibrated/validated with the in-situ ground measurements. The retrieval of surface soil moisture from microwave remote sensing is sensitive to surface conditions, and hence requires calibration/validation specific to a site/region. The improvement in the hydrological variables/fluxes is sensitive to the framework adopted during the assimilation of remotely sensed data. The main focus of the study was to assess the retrieval algorithm for the surface soil moisture from both active (ENVISAT,RADARSAT-2)and passive(AMSR-E) microwave satellites in a semi-arid tropical watershed of South India. Further, the usefulness of these retrieved remotely sensed products for the estimation of recharge was investigated by developing a coupled hydrological model and an assimilation framework.
A brief introduction was made in Chapter 1 on the importance of surface soil moisture and evapotranspiration in hydrology, and the feasible options available for the retrieval from microwave remote sensing. A detailed review of the literature is presented in Chapter 2 to establish the state-of-the-art on the following:(i) retrieval algorithms for the surface soil moisture from active and passive microwave remote sensing,(ii) estimation of actual evapotranspiration from optical remote sensing(MODIS),(iii) coupled surface-ground water hydrological models,(iv) estimation of soil hydraulic properties with their uncertainties, and(v) assimilation framework specific to hydrological modelling.
To calibrate/validate the retrieval algorithms and to test the coupled model and the assimilation framework developed, field measurements were carried out in the BerambadI experimental watershed located in the Kabini river basin. The surface soil moisture in 50 field plots, profile soil moisture up to 1m depth in 20 field plots, and ground water level in 200 bore wells were measured. Twelve images of ENVISAT, seven teen images of RADARSAT-2, along with AMSR-E and MODIS data were used. These data pertained to different durations during the period 2008 to 2011,the details of which are given in Chapter 3.
The approach for the retrieval of surface soil moisture and the associated uncertainty from active and passive microwave remote sensing is given in Chapter 4. Surface soil moisture was retrieved for six vegetation classes using the linear regression model and copulas. Three types of copulas(Clayton, Frank and Gumbel) were investigated. It was found that the ensemble mean simulated using the linear regression model and three copulas was nearly same. The copulas were found to be superior than the linear regression model when comparing the distributions of the mean of the generated ensemble. Among the copulas it was observed that the Clayton copula performed better in the lower and middle ranges of backscatter coefficient, while the Gumbel and Frank copulas were found to be superior in the upper ranges of backscatter coefficients. The range of RMSE was approximatively 4cm3cm−3 indicating that the retrieval from ENVISAT/RADARSAT-2 was good. ACDF based approach was proposed to retrieve the surface soil moisture map for the watershed with a spatial resolution of 100m x 100m ( i.e one hectare). The map of the uncertainty in the retrieved surface soil moisture was also prepared using the Clayton copula. The AMSR-E surface soil moisture product was calibrated for the watershed during the period 2008 to 2011, using the map generated from the ENVISAT/RADARSAT data. They Clayton copula was used to generate the ensemble of the corrected AMSR-E surface soil moisture. The standard deviation of the generated ensemble varied from 0.01 to 0.03cm3cm−3 ,hence the derived surface soil moisture product for Berambadi was found to be good.
In the Chapter 5, a one dimensional soil moisture model was developed based on the numerical solution of the Richards’ equation using finite difference method and inverse modeling was carried out using the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation(GLUE) approach for estimating the soil hydraulic parameters of the van Genuchten(VG) model and their uncertainty. The parameters were estimated from the two field sites(Berambadi and Wailapally watershed in South India) and from laboratory evaporation experiment for the Wailapally site. It was found that the GLUE approach was able to provide good uncertainty bounds for the soil hydraulic parameters. The uncertainty in the estimates from the field experiment was found to be higher than from the laboratory evaporation experiment for both water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves. The saturated soil moisture(θs )and shape parameter (n) of VG model estimated from the laboratory evaporation and field experiment were found to be the same, and further more they showed a lower uncertainty from both the experiments. Moreover, the residual soil moisture (θr), inverse of capillary fringe thickness (α) and saturated hydraulic conductivity( KS) showed a relatively higher uncertainty. In the Berambadi watershed ,the inverse modeling was performed in three bare field plots, and it was found that ﬁeld plots which had higher θs showed a relatively higher actual evapotranspiration (AET) and lower potential recharge.
In Chapter 6, the retrieval of profile soil moisture up to 2m by assimilation of surface soil moisture was investigated by performing synthetic experiments on six soil types. The measured surface soil moisture over top 5cm depth was assimilated into the one dimensional soil moisture model to retrieve the profile soil moisture. Even though the assimilation of surface soil moisture helped in improving the profile soil moisture for the six soil types, the bias was observed. To reduce the bias, pseudo observations of profile soil moisture were generated and used in addition to the surface soil moisture in the assimilation altogether. These pseudo observations were generated using the linear relationship existing between the surface and profile soil moisture. A significant bias reduction was found to be feasible by using this method when pseudo observations beyond 75cm depth were used then there was no significant improvement.
A coupled surface-ground water model was developed, which had 5 layers for the vadose zone and one layer for the ground water zone, in order to consider the major hydrological processes from ground surface to ground water table in a semi-arid watershed. The details of the coupled model were described in Chapter 7. The major aim of this model was to be able to use remotely sensed data of surface soil moisture and evapotranspiration to simulate recharge. The model was tested by applying in a lumped framework to the field data set in the Berambadi watershed for the year 2010 to 2011. The performance of the model was evaluated with the measured watershed average root zone soil moisture and ground water levels. The watershed average root zone soil moisture was obtained by averaging the field measurements from 20 plots and average ground water level was obtained by averaging the field measurement from 200 bore wells. In order to assimilate the AET into the coupled model, the daily AET at a spatial resolution of 1km was estimated from MODIS data. The AET was validated in one forested and four agricultural sites in the watershed. The validation was based on the comparison with AET simulated from water balance models. For agricultural plots the STICS (crop model) and for the forested site the COMFORT (hydrological) model were used. The AET from the MODIS showed a reasonably good match with both the forested and agricultural plots at the annual scale (for the crop model approximately 4-5 months). Model simulations were carried out with and without assimilating the remotely sensed data and the performance was evaluated. It was found that the assimilation helped in capturing the trends in deeper layer soil moisture and groundwater level.
At the end, in Chapter 8 the major conclusions drawn from the various chapters are summarized.2016-02-29T18:30:00ZBehaviour Of FRP Strengthened Masonry In Compression And Shear
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2292
Title: Behaviour Of FRP Strengthened Masonry In Compression And Shear
Authors: Pavan, G S
Abstract: Masonry structures constitute a significant portion of building stock worldwide. Seismic performance of unreinforced masonry has been far from satisfactory. Masonry is purported to be a major source of hazard during earthquakes by reconnaissance surveys conducted aftermath of an earthquake. Reasons for the poor performance of masonry structures are more than one namely lack of deformational capacity, poor tensile strength & lack of earthquake resistance features coupled with poor quality control and large variation in strength of materials employed. Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) composites have emerged as an efficient strengthening technique for reinforced concrete structures over the past two decades. Present thesis is focused towards analysing the behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) strengthened masonry under axial compression and in-plane shear loading. Determination of in-planes hear resistance of large masonry panels requires tremendous effort in terms of cost, labour and time. Masonry assemblages like prisms and triplets that represent the state of stress present in masonry walls and masonry in-fills when under the action of in-planes hear forces present an alternative option for research and analysis purposes. Hence, present research is focused towards analysing the performance of FRP strengthened masonry assemblages and unreinforced masonry assemblages.
Chapter1 provides a brief review on the behaviour of masonry shear walls and masonry in-fills under the action of in-plane shear forces in addition to the performance of masonry structures during past earthquakes. Review of available literature on FRP confinement of masonry prisms with bed joints inclined from 00 to 900 to the loading axis under axial compression, analytical models available for FRP confined concrete, shear strength of masonry triplets attached with FRP is presented.
Chapter 2 primarily focuses on determining the various properties of the materials involved in this research investigation. Test procedure and results of the tests conducted to determine the mechanical and related properties of the materials involved are presented. Elastic properties and stress-strain response of burnt clay brick, mortar and FRP laminates are presented.
Studies conducted on behaviour of GFRP confined masonry prisms under monotonic axial compression are included in Chapter 3. The study comprised of testing masonry prisms, both unconfined and FRP confined masonry prisms under axial compression. Stretcher bond and English bond prisms, with bed joints normal and parallel to loading axis are included in this study. Two grades of GFRP,360g/m2 and 600 g/m2 are employed to confine masonry prisms. The experimental program involved masonry prism types that accounted for variations in masonry bonding pattern, bed joint inclination to the loading axis and grade of GFRP. Review of the available analytical models predicting compressive strength of FRP confined masonry prism is presented. Available models for FRP confinement of masonry are re-calibrated using the present experimental data generating new coefficients for the already existing model to develop new expression for predicting the compressive strength of FRP confined prisms. In addition to the prism types mentioned earlier, behaviour of unconfined and GFRP confined stretcher bond prisms with bed joints inclined at 300, 450 & 600 to the loading axis are further investigated.
Chapter 4 primarily deals with the shear strength and deformational capacity of masonry triplets that represent joint shear failure in masonry. An experimental program involving masonry triplets attached with different types of FRP(GFRP and CFRP), grade of FRP, percentage area covered by FRP and reinforcement pattern is executed. This exercise determined the influence of these parameters over the enhancement achieved in terms of shear strength and ultimate displacement. Results of tests conducted on stretcher bond prisms presented in chapter 3 and results of tests on shear triplets presented in this chapter are combined to study the interaction between shear and normal stresses acting along the masonry bed joint at different angles of inclination.
The thesis culminated with chapter 5 as concluding remarks highlighting the salient
Information pertaining to the behaviour of FRP strengthened masonry under axial compression and in-plane shear loading obtained as an outcome of the research conducted as a part of this thesis.2014-04-07T18:30:00ZNumerical Methods For Solving The Eigenvalue Problem Involved In The Karhunen-Loeve Decomposition
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2308
Title: Numerical Methods For Solving The Eigenvalue Problem Involved In The Karhunen-Loeve Decomposition
Authors: Choudhary, Shalu
Abstract: In structural analysis and design it is important to consider the effects of uncertainties in loading and material properties in a rational way. Uncertainty in material properties such as heterogeneity in elastic and mass properties can be modeled as a random field. For computational purpose, it is essential to discretize and represent the random field. For a field with known second order statistics, such a representation can be achieved by Karhunen-Lo`eve (KL) expansion. Accordingly, the random field is represented in a truncated series expansion using a few eigenvalues and associated eigenfunctions of the covariance function, and corresponding random coefficients.
The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the covariance kernel are obtained by solving a second order Fredholm integral equation. A closed-form solution for the integral equation, especially for arbitrary domains, may not always be available. Therefore an approximate solution is sought. While finding an approximate solution, it is important to consider both accuracy of the solution and the cost of computing the solution. This work is focused on exploring a few numerical methods for estimating the solution of this integral equation. Three different methods:(i)using finite element bases(Method1),(ii) mid-point approximation(Method2), and(iii)by the Nystr¨om method(Method3), are implemented and numerically studied. The methods and results are compared in terms of accuracy, computational cost, and difficulty of implementation. In the first method an eigenfunction is first represented in a linear combination of a set of finite element bases. The resulting error in the integral equation is then minimized in the Galerkinsense, which results in a generalized matrix eigenvalue problem. In the second method, the domain is partitioned into a finite number of subdomains. The covariance function is discretized by approximating its value over each subdomain locally, and thereby the integral equation is transformed to a matrix eigenvalue problem. In the third method the Fredholm integral equation is approximated by a quadrature rule, which also results in a matrix eigenvalue problem. The methods and results are compared in terms of accuracy, computational cost, and difficulty of implementation.
The first part of the numerical study involves comparing these three methods. This numerical study is first done in one dimensional domain. Then for study in two dimensions a simple rectangular domain(referred toasDomain1)is taken with an uncertain material property modeled as a Gaussian random field. For the chosen covariance model and domain, the analytical solutions are known, which allows verifying the accuracy of the numerical solutions. There by these three numerical methods are studied and are compared for a chosen target accuracy and different correlation lengths of the random field. It was observed that Method 2 and Method 3 are much faster than the Method 1. On the other hand, for Method 2 and 3, additional cost for discretizing the domain into nodes should be considered whereas for a mechanics-related problem, Method 1 can use the available finite element mesh used for solving the mechanics problem.
The second part of the work focuses on studying on the effect of the geometry of the model on realizations of the random field. The objective of the study is to see the possibility of generating the random field for a complicated domain from the KL expansion for a simpler domain. For this purpose, two KL decompositions are obtained: one on the Domain1, and another on the same rectangular domain modified with a rectangular hole (referredtoasDomain2) inside it. The random process is generated and realizations are compared. It was observed from the studies that probability density functions at the nodes on both the domains, that is, on Domain 1 and Domain 2, are similar. This observation leads to a possibility that a complicated domain can be replaced by a corresponding simpler domain, thereby reducing the computational cost.2014-05-04T18:30:00ZStudies On Characterization Of Self Compacting Concrete : Microstructure, Fracture And Fatigue
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2237
Title: Studies On Characterization Of Self Compacting Concrete : Microstructure, Fracture And Fatigue
Authors: Hemalatha, T
Abstract: Evolution of concrete is continuously taking place to meet the ever-growing demands of the construction industry. Self compacting concrete (SCC) has emerged as a result of this demand to overcome the scarcity of labour. SCC is widely replacing normal vibrated concrete (NVC) these days owing to its advantages such as homogeneity of the mix, filling ability even in heavily congested reinforcement, smooth finish, reduction in construction time etc.
The ingredients used for SCC is the same as that of the NVC. But the proportioning of ingredients to achieve self compactability alters the microstructure of SCC which in turn affects the mechanical and fracture properties. Moreover, the mineral admixtures such as fly ash and silica fume when used for improving the workability of SCC help in the development of the microstructural skeleton. In this study, three SCC mixes SCC1- made with only cement, SCC2 - with fly ash in addition to cement and SCC3 - with fly ash and silica fume in addition to cement for achieving normal, medium and high strength SCC respectively are cast. The microstructural changes in SCC with and without mineral admixtures over a period of time are studied using different techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).
The modification of mechanical properties at microstructural level brings difference in the behavior at macro level. Hence in this study, the mechanical properties at microstructural are obtained by using microindentation test and are scaled up to the macro level to predict the influence of micromechanical properties on macro response. The fracture properties of SCC is considered to be the interest of this study and is carried out with the help of advanced techniques such as acoustic emission (AE) and digital image correlation (DIC).
From the various studies carried out, it is inferred that the mixes with mineral admixtures behave in a more brittle manner when compared to mix having no mineral admixture. It is also observed that class ‘F’ fly ash hydrates at a slow pace and the strength gain is observed after 28 days and even beyond 90 days. Hence, it is concluded that it is appropriate to consider the strength at 90 days instead of 28 days for a SCC mix with class ‘F’ fly ash. Silica fume on the other hand is observed to result in a more rapid gain in strength and this can partially offset the delay in strength gain due to fly ash.2013-09-10T18:30:00Z