etd@IISc Collection:
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/34
2016-04-14T02:46:14ZAir-Assited Atomization Strategies For High Viscosity Fuels
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2506
Title: Air-Assited Atomization Strategies For High Viscosity Fuels
Authors: Mohan, Avulapati Madan
Abstract: Atomization of fuel is an important pre-requisite for efficient combustion in devices such as gas turbines, liquid propellant rocket engines, internal combustion engines and incinerators. The overall objective of the present work is to explore air-assisted atomization strategies for high viscosity fuels and liquids. Air-assisted atomization is a twin-fluid atomization method in which energy of the gas is used to assist the atomization of liquids. Broadly, three categories of air-assisted injection, i.e., effervescent, impinging jet and pre-filming air-blast are studied. Laser-based diagnostics are used to characterize the spray structure in terms of cone angle, penetration and drop size distribution. A backlit direct imaging method is used to study the macroscopic spray characteristics such as spray structure and spray cone angle while the microscopic characteristics are measured using the Particle/droplet imaging analysis (PDIA) technique.
Effervescent atomization is a technique in which a small amount of gas is injected into the liquid at high pressure in the form of bubbles. Upon injection, the two-phase mixture expands rapidly and shatters the liquid into droplets and ligaments. Effervescent spray characteristics of viscous fuels such as Jatropha and Pongamia pure plant oils and diesel are studied. Measurements are made at various gas-to-liquid ratios (GLRs) and injection pressures. A Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of the order of 20 µm is achieved at an injection pressure of 10 bar and GLR of 0.2 with viscous fuels. An image-based method is proposed and applied to evaluate the unsteadiness in the spray. A map indicating steady/unsteady regime of operation has been generated. An optically accessible injector tip is developed which has enabled visualization of the two-phase flow structure inside the exit orifice of the atomizer. An important contribution of the present work is the correlation of the two-phase flow regime in the orifice with the external spray structure. For viscous fuels, the spray is observed to be steady only in the annular two-phase flow regime. Unexpanded gas bubbles observed in the liquid core even at an injection pressure of 10 bar indicate that the bubbly flow regime may not be beneficial for high viscosity oils.
A novel method of external mixing twin-fluid atomization is developed. In this method, two identical liquid jets impinging at an angle are atomized using a gas jet. The effect of liquid viscosity (1 cP to 39 cP) and surface tension (22 mN/m to 72 mN/m) on this mode of atomization is studied by using water-glycerol and water-ethanol mixtures, respectively. An SMD of the order of 40 µm is achieved for a viscosity of 39 cP at a GLR of 0.13 at a liquid pressure of 8 bar and gas pressure of 5 bar. It is observed that the effect of liquid properties is minimal at high GLRs where the liquid jets are broken before the impingement as in the prompt atomization mode. Finally, a pre-filming air-blast technique is explored for transient spray applications. An SMD of 22 µm is obtained with diesel at liquid and gas pressures as low as 10 bar and 8.5 bar, respectively. With this technique, an SMD of 44 µm is achieved for Jatropha oil having a viscosity 10 times higher than that of diesel.2016-02-24T18:30:00ZMulti-Phase Modeling Of Microporosity And Microstructures During Solidification Of Aluminum Alloys
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2303
Title: Multi-Phase Modeling Of Microporosity And Microstructures During Solidification Of Aluminum Alloys
Authors: Karagadde, Shyamprasad
Abstract: Manufacturing of light-weight materials is associated with several types of casting defects during solidification. Porosity defects are common, especially in aluminum and its alloys, which initiate crack propagation and thereby cause drastic deterioration in the mechanical properties. These defects, classified as micro and macro defects (based on their sizes), are mainly governed by release of hydrogen into the liquid at the solid-liquid interface, which triggers the nucleation and growth of hydrogen bubbles in the melt. Subsequently, these bubbles interact with solidifying interfaces such as dendritic arms and eutectic fronts, leading to the formation of pores. Macroscopic defects in the form of voids are created due to solidification shrinkage.
The primary focus of the present work is to develop phenomenological models for the evolution of microporosity and microstructures during solidification. The issues outlined above typically occur in multi-phase environments comprising of solid, liquid and gaseous phases, and over a range of length and time scales. Any phenomenological prediction would, therefore, require a multi-phase-scale approach. Principles of volume averaging are applied to equations of conservation to obtain single-field formulations. These are then solved with appropriate interface tracking techniques such as Enthalpy, Level-set, Volume-of-fluid and Immersed-boundary methods. The framework is built up on a standard pressure based incompressible fluid flow solver (SIMPLER algorithm) and coupled modeling strategies are proposed to address the interfacial dynamics. A two-dimensional framework is considered with a fixed-grid Cartesian co-ordinate system. Scaling analyses are performed to bring out the relative effects of various competing parameters in order to obtain further insights into this complex phenomenon. The numerical results and scaling predictions are validated against experimental observations published in literature.
In literature, numerical predictions of microporosity mainly include criteria based models based on empirical relations and deterministic/stochastic models based on diffusion driven growth assuming spherical bubbles. The dynamic evolution of non-spherical bubble-metal interface in a three-phase system is yet to be captured. Moreover, several in-situ experiments have shown elongated bubble shapes during the engulfment phase, therefore a criterion to define the dependence on cooling rates and the resulting bubble morphology can possibly deliver further practical insights. We propose a numerical model for hydrogen bubble growth, its movement and subsequent engulfment by a solidifying front, combining the features of level-set and enthalpy methods for tracking bubble-metal and solid-liquid interfaces, respectively. The influx of hydrogen into heterogeneously nucleated bubbles results in growth of bubbles to sizes up to a few hundreds of microns. In the first part of this numerical study, a methodology based on the level-set approach is developed to simultaneously capture hydrogen bubble growth and movement in liquid aluminum. The solidification is first assumed to occur outside the micro-domain providing a specified hydrogen influx to the bubble-in-liquid system. The level-set equation is formulated in such a way as to account for simultaneous growth and movement of the bubble. The growth of a bubble with continuous and fixed hydrogen levels in the melt is studied.
The rates of growth of bubble-liquid and solidifying interfaces are compared using an order of magnitude analysis. This scaling analysis explains the thought experiment proposed in the literature, where difference in bubble shapes was attributed to the cooling rate. Moreover, it shows explicit dependence on bubble radius and cooling rate leading to a new criterion for bubble elongation proposed in this thesis. This also highlights the comparison between solidification and hydrogen diffusion time-scales which primarily govern the competitive growth behavior. The bubble-in-liquid model is coupled with microscopic enthalpy method to incorporate effects of solidification and study the interaction of solid-liquid and bubble-liquid interfaces. The phenomena of bubble engulfment and elongation are successfully captured by the proposed model. A parametric study is carried out to estimate the bubble elongation based on different initial bubble sizes and varying cooling rates encountered in typical sand, permanent mold and die casting processes.
Although simulation of microstructures has been extensively studied in the literature, very few models address the phenomena of simultaneous growth and movement of equiaxed dendrites. The presence of different flow environments and multiple dendrites are known to alter the position and shape of the dendrites. The proposed model combines the features of the following methods, namely, the Enthalpy method for modeling growth; the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) for handling the rigid solid-liquid interfaces; and the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method for tracking the advection of the dendrite. The algorithm also performs explicit-implicit coupling between the techniques used. Validation with available literature is performed and dendrite growth in presence of rotational and buoyancy driven flow fields is studied. The expected transformation into globular microstructure in presence of stirring induced flows is successfully simulated. A simple order estimate for time required for stirring is performed which agrees with numerical predictions. In buoyancy driven environment of a settling dendrite, the arm tip speeds show expected higher velocity of the upstream tip compared to its counterpart. The model is extended to study thermal and hydrodynamic interactions between multiple dendrites with appropriate considerations for different orientations and velocities of the dendritic solid entities. The present model can be used for the prediction of grain sizes and shapes and to simulate morphological transformations due to different melt flow scenarios.
In the final part, the methodology presented for growth and engulfment of hydrogen bubbles is extended to study the phenomenon of diffusion driven bubble growth occurring in direct foaming of metals. The source of hydrogen is determined by the rate of decomposition of the blowing agent. This is accounted for by a source term in the hydrogen species conservation equation, and growth rate of hydrogen bubbles is calculated on the basis of diffusive flux at the interface. The level-set method is used for tracking the bubble-liquid interface growth, and the macroscopic enthalpy model is used for obtaining heat transfer and solid front position. The model is validated with analytical solution by comparing the front position and the solidification time. The variation of foam density with a transient hydrogen generation source is studied and qualitatively compared with results reported in literature. The modeling strategies proposed in this work are generic and therefore have potential in simulating a variety of complex multi-phase problems.2014-04-22T18:30:00Z1-D And 3-D Analysis Of Multi-Port Muffler Configurations With Emphasis On Elliptical Cylindrical Chamber
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/1931
Title: 1-D And 3-D Analysis Of Multi-Port Muffler Configurations With Emphasis On Elliptical Cylindrical Chamber
Authors: Mimani, Akhilesh
Abstract: The flow-reversal elliptical cylindrical end chamber mufflers of short length are used often in the modern day automotive exhaust systems. The conventional 1-D axial plane wave theory is not able to predict their acoustical attenuation performance in view of the fact that the chamber length is not enough for the evanescent 3-D modes generated at the junctions to decay sufficiently for frequencies below the cut-off frequency. Also, due to the large area expansion ratio at the inlet, the first few higher order modes get cut on even in the low frequency regime. This necessitates a 3-D FEM or 3-D BEM analysis, which is cumbersome and time consuming. Therefore, an ingenious 1-D transverse plane wave theory is developed by considering plane wave propagation along the major-axis of the elliptical section, whereby a 2-port axially short elliptical and circular chamber muffler is characterized by means of the transfer matrix [T] or impedance matrix [Z]. Two different approaches are followed: (1) a numerical scheme such as the Matrizant approach, and (2) an analytical approach based upon the Frobenius series solution of the Webster’s equation governing the transverse plane wave propagation. The convective effects of mean flow are neglected; however the dissipative effects at the ports are taken into account. The TL predicted by this 1-D transverse plane wave analysis is compared with that obtained by means of the 3-D analytical approach and numerical (FEM/BEM) methods. An excellent agreement is observed between this simplified 1-D approach and the 3-D approaches at least up to the cut-on frequency of the (1, 1) even mode in the case of elliptical cylindrical chambers, or the (1, 0) mode in the case of circular cylindrical chambers, thereby validating this 1-D transverse plane wave theory. The acoustical attenuation characteristics of such short chamber mufflers for various configurations are discussed, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Moreover, the Frobenius series solution enables one to obtain non-dimensional frequencies for determining the resonance peak and trough in the TL graph. The use of this theory is, however, limited to configurations in which both the ports are located along the major axis in the case of elliptical chambers and along the same diameter for circular chambers.
The method of cascading the [T] matrices of the 2-port elements cannot be used to analyze a network arrangement of 2-port elements owing to the non-unique direction of wave propagation in such a network of acoustic elements. Although, a few papers are found in the literature reporting the analysis of a network of 2-port acoustic elements, no work is seen on the analysis of a network of multi-port elements having more than two external ports. Therefore, a generalized algorithm is proposed for analyzing a general network arrangement of linear multi-port acoustic elements having N inlet ports and M outlet ports. Each of these multi-port elements constituting the network may be interconnected to each other in an arbitrary manner. By appropriate book-keeping of the equations obtained by the [Z] matrix characterizing each of the multi-port and 2-port elements along with the junction laws (which imply the equality of acoustic pressure and conservativeness of mass velocity at a multi-port junction), an overall connectivity matrix is obtained, whereupon a global [Z] matrix is obtained which characterizes the entire network. Generalized expressions are derived for the evaluation of acoustic performance evaluation parameters such as transmission loss (TL) and insertion loss (IL) for a multiple inlet and multiple outlet (MIMO) system. Some of the characteristic properties of a general multi-port element are also studied in this chapter. The 1-D axial and transverse plane wave analysis is used to characterize axially long and short chambers, respectively, in terms of the [Z] matrix. Different network arrangements of multi-port elements are constructed, wherein the TL performance of such MIMO networks obtained on the basis of either the 1-D axial or 1-D transverse plane wave theory are compared with 3-D FEA carried on a commercial software. The versatility of this algorithm is that it can deal with more than two external or terminal ports, i.e., one can have multiple inlets and outlets in a complicated acoustic network.
A generalized approach/algorithm is presented to characterize rigid wall reactive multi-port chamber mufflers of different geometries by means of a 3-D analytical formulation based upon the modal expansion and the uniform piston-driven model. The geometries analyzed here are rectangular plenum chambers, circular cylindrical chamber mufflers with and without a pass tube, elliptical cylindrical chamber mufflers, spherical and hemispherical chambers, conical chamber mufflers with and without a co-axial pass tube and sectoral cylindrical chamber mufflers of circular and elliptical cross-section as well as sectoral conical chamber mufflers. Computer codes or subroutines have been developed wherein by choosing appropriate mode functions in the generalized pressure response function, one can characterize a multi-port chamber muffler of any of the aforementioned separable geometrical shapes in terms of the [Z] matrix, subsequent to which the TL performance of these chambers is evaluated in terms of the scattering matrix [S] parameters by making use of the relations between [Z] and [S] matrices derived earlier. Interestingly, the [Z] matrix approach combined with the uniform piston-driven model is indeed ideally suited for the 3-D analytical formulation inasmuch as regardless of the number of ports, one deals with only one area discontinuity at a time, thereby making the analysis convenient for a multi-port muffler configuration with arbitrary location of ports.
The TL characteristics of SISO chambers corresponding to each of the aforementioned geometries (especially the elliptical cylindrical chamber) are analyzed in detail with respect to the effect of chamber dimensions (chamber length and transverse dimensions), and relative angular and axial location of ports. Furthermore, the analysis of SIDO (i.e., single inlet and double outlet) chamber mufflers is given special consideration. In particular, we examine
(1) the effect of additional outlet port (second outlet port),
(2) variation in the relative angular or axial location of the additional or second outlet port (keeping
the location of the inlet port and the outlet ports of the original SISO chamber to be constant) and (3) the effect of interchanging the location of the inlet and outlet ports
on the TL performance of these mufflers. Thus, design guidelines are developed for the optimal location of the inlet and outlet ports keeping in mind the broadband attenuation characteristics for a single inlet and multiple outlet (SIMO) system.
The non-dimensional limits up to which a flow-reversal elliptical (or circular) cylindrical end chamber having an end-inlet and end-outlet configuration is acoustically short (so that the 1-D transverse plane wave theory is applicable) and the limits beyond which it is acoustically long (so that the 1-D axial plane wave theory is applicable) is determined in terms of the ratio or equivalently, in terms of the ratio. Towards this end, two different configurations of the elliptical cylindrical chamber are considered, namely,
(1) End-Offset Inlet (located along the major-axis of the ellipse) and End-Centered Outlet
(2) End-Offset Inlet and End-Offset Outlet (both the ports located on the major-axis of the
ellipse and at equal offset distance from the center).
The former configuration is analyzed using 3-D FEA simulations (on SYSNOISE) while the 3-D analytical uniform piston-driven model is used to analyze the latter configuration. The existence of the higher order evanescent modes in the axially long reversal chamber at low frequency (before the cut-on frequency of the (1, 1) even mode or (1, 0) mode) causes a shift in the resonance peak predicted by the 1-D axial plane wave theory and 3-D analytical approach. Thus, the 1-D axial plane wave analysis is corrected by introducing appropriate end correction due to the modified or effective length of the elliptical cylindrical chamber. An empirical formulae has been developed to obtain the average non-dimensional end correction for the aforementioned configurations as functions of the expansion ratio, (i.e., ), minor-axis to major-axis ratio, (i.e., ) and the center-offset distance ratio, (i.e., ). The intermediate limits between which the chamber is neither short nor long (acoustically) has also been obtained. Furthermore, an ingenious method (Quasi 1-D approach) of combining the 1-D transverse plane wave model with the 1-D axial plane wave model using the [Z] matrix is also proposed for the end-offset inlet and end-centered outlet configuration. A 3-D analytical procedure has also been developed which also enables one to determine the end-correction in axially long 2-port flow-reversal end chamber mufflers for different geometries such as rectangular, circular and elliptical cylindrical as well as conical chambers, a priori to the computation of TL. Using this novel analytical technique, we determine the end correction for arbitrary locations on the two end ports on the end face of an axially long flow-reversal end chamber. The applicability of this method is also demonstrated for determination of the end corrections for the 2-port circular cylindrical chamber configuration without and with a pass tube, elliptical cylindrical chambers as well as rectangular and conical chambers.2013-02-19T18:30:00Z1-D And 3-D Analysis Of Multi-Port Muffler Configurations With Emphasis On Elliptical Cylindrical Chamber
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2218
Title: 1-D And 3-D Analysis Of Multi-Port Muffler Configurations With Emphasis On Elliptical Cylindrical Chamber
Authors: Mimani, Akhilesh
Abstract: The flow-reversal elliptical cylindrical end chamber mufflers of short length are used often in the modern day automotive exhaust systems. The conventional 1-D axial plane wave theory is not able to predict their acoustical attenuation performance in view of the fact that the chamber length is not enough for the evanescent 3-D modes generated at the junctions to decay sufficiently for frequencies below the cut-off frequency. Also, due to the large area expansion ratio at the inlet, the first few higher order modes get cut on even in the low frequency regime. This necessitates a 3-D FEM or 3-D BEM analysis, which is cumbersome and time consuming. Therefore, an ingenious 1-D transverse plane wave theory is developed by considering plane wave propagation along the major-axis of the elliptical section, whereby a 2-port axially short elliptical and circular chamber muffler is characterized by means of the transfer matrix [T] or impedance matrix [Z]. Two different approaches are followed: (1) a numerical scheme such as the Matrizant approach, and (2) an analytical approach based upon the Frobenius series solution of the Webster’s equation governing the transverse plane wave propagation. The convective effects of mean flow are neglected; however the dissipative effects at the ports are taken into account. The TL predicted by this 1-D transverse plane wave analysis is compared with that obtained by means of the 3-D analytical approach and numerical (FEM/BEM) methods. An excellent agreement is observed between this simplified 1-D approach and the 3-D approaches at least up to the cut-on frequency of the (1, 1) even mode in the case of elliptical cylindrical chambers, or the (1, 0) mode in the case of circular cylindrical chambers, thereby validating this 1-D transverse plane wave theory. The acoustical attenuation characteristics of such short chamber mufflers for various configurations are discussed, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Moreover, the Frobenius series solution enables one to obtain non-dimensional frequencies for determining the resonance peak and trough in the TL graph. The use of this theory is, however, limited to configurations in which both the ports are located along the major axis in the case of elliptical chambers and along the same diameter for circular chambers. The method of cascading the [T] matrices of the 2-port elements cannot be used to analyze a network arrangement of 2-port elements owing to the non-unique direction of wave propagation in such a network of acoustic elements. Although, a few papers are found in the literature reporting the analysis of a network of 2-port acoustic elements, no work is seen on the analysis of a network of multi-port elements having more than two external ports. Therefore, a generalized algorithm is proposed for analyzing a general network arrangement of linear multi-port acoustic elements having N inlet ports and M outlet ports. Each of these multi-port elements constituting the network may be interconnected to each other in an arbitrary manner. By appropriate book-keeping of the equations obtained by the [Z] matrix characterizing each of the multi-port and 2-port elements along with the junction laws (which imply the equality of acoustic pressure and conservativeness of mass velocity at a multi-port junction), an overall connectivity matrix is obtained, whereupon a global [Z] matrix is obtained which characterizes the entire network. Generalized expressions are derived for the evaluation of acoustic performance evaluation parameters such as transmission loss (TL) and insertion loss (IL) for a multiple inlet and multiple outlet (MIMO) system. Some of the characteristic properties of a general multi-port element are also studied in this chapter. The 1-D axial and transverse plane wave analysis is used to characterize axially long and short chambers, respectively, in terms of the [Z] matrix. Different network arrangements of multi-port elements are constructed, wherein the TL performance of such MIMO networks obtained on the basis of either the 1-D axial or 1-D transverse plane wave theory are compared with 3-D FEA carried on a commercial software. The versatility of this algorithm is that it can deal with more than two external or terminal ports, i.e., one can have multiple inlets and outlets in a complicated acoustic network. A generalized approach/algorithm is presented to characterize rigid wall reactive multi-port chamber mufflers of different geometries by means of a 3-D analytical formulation based upon the modal expansion and the uniform piston-driven model. The geometries analyzed here are rectangular plenum chambers, circular cylindrical chamber mufflers with and without a pass tube, elliptical cylindrical chamber mufflers, spherical and hemispherical chambers, conical chamber mufflers with and without a co-axial pass tube and sectoral cylindrical chamber mufflers of circular and elliptical cross-section as well as sectoral conical chamber mufflers. Computer codes or subroutines have been developed wherein by choosing appropriate mode functions in the generalized pressure response function, one can characterize a multi-port chamber muffler of any of the aforementioned separable geometrical shapes in terms of the [Z] matrix, subsequent to which the TL performance of these chambers is evaluated in terms of the scattering matrix [S] parameters by making use of the relations between [Z] and [S] matrices derived earlier. Interestingly, the [Z] matrix approach combined with the uniform piston-driven model is indeed ideally suited for the 3-D analytical formulation inasmuch as regardless of the number of ports, one deals with only one area discontinuity at a time, thereby making the analysis convenient for a multi-port muffler configuration with arbitrary location of ports. The TL characteristics of SISO chambers corresponding to each of the aforementioned geometries (especially the elliptical cylindrical chamber) are analyzed in detail with respect to the effect of chamber dimensions (chamber length and transverse dimensions), and relative angular and axial location of ports. Furthermore, the analysis of SIDO (i.e., single inlet and double outlet) chamber mufflers is given special consideration. In particular, we examine (1) the effect of additional outlet port (second outlet port), (2) variation in the relative angular or axial location of the additional or second outlet port (keeping the location of the inlet port and the outlet ports of the original SISO chamber to be constant) and (3) the effect of interchanging the location of the inlet and outlet ports on the TL performance of these mufflers. Thus, design guidelines are developed for the optimal location of the inlet and outlet ports keeping in mind the broadband attenuation characteristics for a single inlet and multiple outlet (SIMO) system. The non-dimensional limits up to which a flow-reversal elliptical (or circular) cylindrical end chamber having an end-inlet and end-outlet configuration is acoustically short (so that the 1-D transverse plane wave theory is applicable) and the limits beyond which it is acoustically long (so that the 1-D axial plane wave theory is applicable) is determined in terms of the ratio or equivalently, in terms of the ratio. Towards this end, two different configurations of the elliptical cylindrical chamber are considered, namely, (1) End-Offset Inlet (located along the major-axis of the ellipse) and End-Centered Outlet (2) End-Offset Inlet and End-Offset Outlet (both the ports located on the major-axis of the ellipse and at equal offset distance from the center). The former configuration is analyzed using 3-D FEA simulations (on SYSNOISE) while the 3-D analytical uniform piston-driven model is used to analyze the latter configuration. The existence of the higher order evanescent modes in the axially long reversal chamber at low frequency (before the cut-on frequency of the (1, 1) even mode or (1, 0) mode) causes a shift in the resonance peak predicted by the 1-D axial plane wave theory and 3-D analytical approach. Thus, the 1-D axial plane wave analysis is corrected by introducing appropriate end correction due to the modified or effective length of the elliptical cylindrical chamber. An empirical formulae has been developed to obtain the average non-dimensional end correction for the aforementioned configurations as functions of the expansion ratio, (i.e., ), minor-axis to major-axis ratio, (i.e., ) and the center-offset distance ratio, (i.e., ). The intermediate limits between which the chamber is neither short nor long (acoustically) has also been obtained. Furthermore, an ingenious method (Quasi 1-D approach) of combining the 1-D transverse plane wave model with the 1-D axial plane wave model using the [Z] matrix is also proposed for the end-offset inlet and end-centered outlet configuration. A 3-D analytical procedure has also been developed which also enables one to determine the end-correction in axially long 2-port flow-reversal end chamber mufflers for different geometries such as rectangular, circular and elliptical cylindrical as well as conical chambers, a priori to the computation of TL. Using this novel analytical technique, we determine the end correction for arbitrary locations on the two end ports on the end face of an axially long flow-reversal end chamber. The applicability of this method is also demonstrated for determination of the end corrections for the 2-port circular cylindrical chamber configuration without and with a pass tube, elliptical cylindrical chambers as well as rectangular and conical chambers.2013-08-27T18:30:00Z