etd@IISc Collection:
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/37
2016-10-17T20:26:58ZModel Studies Of The Hot And Dense Strongly Interacting Matter
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2518
Title: Model Studies Of The Hot And Dense Strongly Interacting Matter
Authors: Chatterjee, Sandeep
Abstract: Ultra-relativisitic heavy ion collisions produce quark gluon plasma-a hot and dense soup of deconfined quarks and gluons akin to the early universe. We study two models in the context of these collisions namely, Polyakov Quark Meson Model (PQM) and Hadron Resonance Gas Model (HRGM).The PQM Model provides us with a simple and intuitive understanding of the QCD equation of state and thermodynamics at non zero temperature and baryon density while the HRGM is the principle model to analyse the hadron yields measured in these experiments across the entire range of beam energies.
We study the effect of including the commonly neglected fermionic vacuum fluctuations to the (2+1) flavor PQM model. The conventional PQM model suffers from a rapid phase transition contrary to what is found through lattice simulations. Addition of the vacuum term tames the rapid transition and significantly improves the model’s agreement to lattice data. We further investigate the role of the vacuum term on the phase diagram. The smoothening effect of the vacuum term persists even at non zero . Depending on the value of the mass of the sigma meson, including the vacuum term results in either pushing the critical end point into higher values of the chemical potential or excluding the possibility of a critical end point altogether. We compute the fluctuations(correlations) of conserved charges up to sixth(fourth) order. Comparison is made with lattice data wherever available and overall good qualitative agreement is found, more so for the case of the normalised susceptibilities. The model predictions for the ratio of susceptibilities approach to that of an ideal gas of hadrons as in HRGM at low temperatures while at high temperature the values are close to that of an ideal gas of massless quarks.
We examine the stability of HRGMs by extending them to take care of undiscovered resonances through the Hagedorn formula. We find that the influence of unknown resonances on thermodynamics is large but bounded. We model the decays of resonances and investigate the ratios of particle yields in heavy-ion collisions. We find that extending these models do not have much effect on hydrodynamics but the hadron yield ratios show better agreement with experiment. In principle HRGMs are internally consistent up to a temperature higher than the cross over temperature in QCD; but by examining quark number susceptibilities we find that their region of applicability seems to end even below the QCD cross over.2016-04-24T18:30:00ZTopics In Noncommutative Gauge Theories And Deformed Relativistic Theories
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2468
Title: Topics In Noncommutative Gauge Theories And Deformed Relativistic Theories
Authors: Chandra, Nitin
Abstract: There is a growing consensus among physicists that the classical notion of spacetime has to be drastically revised in order to nd a consistent formulation of quantum mechanics and gravity. One such nontrivial attempt comprises of replacing functions of continuous spacetime coordinates with functions over noncommutative algebra. Dynamics on such noncommutative spacetimes (noncommutative theories) are of great interest for a variety of reasons among the physicists. Additionally arguments combining quantum uncertain-ties with classical gravity provide an alternative motivation for their study, and it is hoped that these theories can provide a self-consistent deformation of ordinary quantum field theories at small distances, yielding non-locality, or create a framework for finite truncation of quantum field theories while preserving symmetries.
In this thesis we study the gauge theories on noncommutative Moyal space. We nd new static solitons and instantons in terms of the so-called generalized Bose operators (GBO). GBOs are constructed to describe reducible representation of the oscillator algebra. They create/annihilate k-quanta, k being a positive integer. We start with giving an alternative description to the already found static magnetic flux tube solutions of the noncommutative gauge theories in terms of GBOs. The Nielsen-Olesen vortex solutions found in terms of these operators also reduce to the ones known in the literature. On the other hand, we nd a class of new instanton solutions which are unitarily inequivalent to the ones found from ADHM construction on noncommutative space. The charge of the instanton has a description in terms of the index representing the reducibility of the Fock space representation, i.e., k. After studying the static soliton solutions in noncommutative Minkowski space and the instanton solutions in noncommutative Euclidean space we go on to study the implications of the time-space noncommutativity in Minkowski space. To understand it properly we study the time-dependent transitions of a forced harmonic oscillator in noncommutative 1+1 dimensional spacetime. We also provide an interpretation of our results in the context of non-linear quantum optics. We then shift to the so-called DSR theories which are related to a different kind of noncommutative ( -Minkowski) space. DSR (Doubly/Deformed Special Relativity) aims to search for an alternate relativistic theory which keeps a length/energy scale (the Planck scale) and a velocity scale (the speed of light scale) invariant. We study thermodynamics of an ideal gas in such a scenario.
In first chapter we introduce the subjects of the noncommutative quantum theories and the DSR. Chapter 2 starts with describing the GBOs. They correspond to reducible representations of the harmonic oscillator algebra. We demonstrate their relevance in the construction of topologically non-trivial solutions in noncommutative gauge theories, focusing our attention to flux tubes, vortices, and instantons. Our method provides a simple new relation between the topological charge and the number of times the basic irreducible representation occurs in the reducible representation underlying the GBO. When used in conjunction with the noncommutative ADHM construction, we nd that these new instantons are in general not unitarily equivalent to the ones currently known in literature.
Chapter 3 studies the time dependent transitions of quantum forced harmonic oscillator (QFHO) in noncommutative R1;1 perturbatively to linear order in the noncommutativity . We show that the Poisson distribution gets modified, and that the vacuum state evolves into a \squeezed" state rather than a coherent state. The time evolutions of un-certainties in position and momentum in vacuum are also studied and imply interesting consequences for modelling nonlinear phenomena in quantum optics.
In chapter 4 we study thermodynamics of an ideal gas in Doubly Special Relativity. We obtain a series solution for the partition function and derive thermodynamic quantities. We observe that DSR thermodynamics is non-perturbative in the SR and massless limits. A stiffer equation of state is found. We conclude our results in the last chapter.2015-08-11T18:30:00ZStudy Of CP-Violation And Determination Of Higgs Boson Properties At Future Colliders
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/1366
Title: Study Of CP-Violation And Determination Of Higgs Boson Properties At Future Colliders
Authors: Singh, Ritesh K2011-08-17T18:30:00ZTransport In Quasi-One-Dimensional Quantum Systems
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/1107
Title: Transport In Quasi-One-Dimensional Quantum Systems
Authors: Agarwal, Amit Kumar
Abstract: This thesis reports our work on transport related problems in mesoscopic physics using analytical as well as numerical techniques. Some of the problems we studied are: effect of interactions and static impurities on the conductance of a ballistic quantum wire[1], aspects of quantum charge pumping [2, 3, 4], DC and AC conductivity of a (dissipative) quantum Hall (edge) line junctions[5, 6], and junctions of three or more Luttinger liquid (LL)quantum wires[7].
This thesis begins with an introductory chapter which gives a brief glimpse of the underlying physical systems and the ideas and techniques used in our studies. In most of the problems we will look at the physical effects caused by e-e interactions and static scattering processes.
In the second chapter we study the effects of a static impurity and interactions on the conductance of a 1D-quantum wire numerically. We use the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism along with a self-consistent Hartree-Fock approximation to numerically study the effects of a single impurity and interactions between the electrons (with and without spin) on the conductance of a quantum wire [1]. We study the variation of the conductance with the wire length, temperature and the strength of the impurity and electron-electron interactions. We find our numerical results to be in agreement with the results obtained from the weak interaction RG analysis. We also discover that bound states produce large density deviations at short distances and have an appreciable effect on the conductance which is not captured by the renormalization group analysis.
In the third chapter we use the equations of motion (EOM) for the density matrix and Floquet scattering theory to study different aspects of charge pumping of non-interacting electrons in a one-dimensional system. We study the effects of the pumping frequency, amplitude, band filling and finite bias on the charge pumped per cycle, and the spectra of the charge and energy currents in the leads[2]. The EOM method works for all values of parameters, and gives the complete time-dependences of the current and charge at any site of the system. In particular we study a system with oscillating impurities at several sites and our results agree with Floquet and adiabatic theory where these are applicable, and provides support for a mechanism proposed elsewhere for charge pumping by a traveling potential wave in such systems. For non-adiabatic and strong pumping, the charge and energy currents are found to have a marked asymmetry between the two leads, and pumping can work even against a substantial bias. We also study one-parameter charge pumping in a system where an oscillating potential is applied at one site while a static potential is applied in a different region [3]. Using Floquet scattering theory, we calculate the current up to second order in the oscillation amplitude and exactly in the oscillation frequency. For low frequency, the charge pumped per cycle is proportional to the frequency and therefore vanishes in the adiabatic limit. If the static potential has a bound state, we find that such a state has a significant effect on the pumped charge if the oscillating potential can excite the bound state into the continuum states or vice versa.
In the fourth chapter we study the current produced in a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) by an applied bias and by weak, point-like impurity potentials which are oscillating in time[4]. We use bosonization to perturbatively calculate the current up to second order in the impurity potentials. In the regime of small bias and low pumping frequency, both the DC and AC components of the current have power law dependences on the bias and pumping frequencies with an exponent 2K−1 for spinless electrons, where Kis the interaction parameter. For K<1/2, the current grows large for special values of the bias. For non-interacting electrons with K= 1, our results agree with those obtained using Floquet scattering theory for Dirac fermions. We also discuss the cases of extended impurities and of spin-1/2 electrons.
In chapter five, we present a microscopic model for a line junction formed by counter or co-propagating single mode quantum Halledges corresponding to different filling factors and calculate the DC [5] and AC[6] conductivity of the system in the diffusive transport regime. The ends of the line junction can be described by two possible current splitting matrices which are dictated by the conditions of both lack of dissipation and the existence of chiral commutation relations between the outgoing bosonic fields. Tunneling between the two edges of the line junction then leads to a microscopic understanding of a phenomenological description of line junctions introduced by Wen. The effect of density-density interactions between the two edges is considered exactly, and renormalization group (RG) ideas are used to study how the tunneling parameter changes with the length scale. The RG analysis leads to a power law variation of the conductance of the line junction with the temperature (or other energy scales) and the line junction may exhibit metallic or insulating phase depending on the strength of the interactions. Our results can be tested in bent quantum Hall systems fabricated recently.
In chapter six, we study a junction of several Luttinger Liquid (LL) wires. We use bosonization with delayed evaluation of boundary conditions for our study. We first study the fixed points of the system and discuss RG flow of various fixed points under switching of different ‘tunneling’ operators at the junction. Then We study the DC conductivity, AC conductivity and noise due to tunneling operators at the junction (perturbative).We also study the tunneling density of states of a junction of three Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid quantum wires[7]. and find an anomalous enhancement in the TDOS for certain fixed points even with repulsive e-e interactions.2011-03-31T18:30:00Z