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http://hdl.handle.net/2005/5
2016-06-22T02:44:13ZHigh Reynolds Number Flow Over A Backward-Facing Step
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2542
Title: High Reynolds Number Flow Over A Backward-Facing Step
Authors: Nadge, Pankaj M
Abstract: Flow separation and reattachment happens in many fluid mechanical situations occurring in engineering applications as well as in nature. The flow over a backward-facing step represents a geometrically simple flow situation exhibiting both flow separation and reattachment. Broadly speaking there are only two important parameters in the problem, the Reynolds number(Re) based on the step height(h),and a geometrical parameter, referred to as the Expansion ratio(ER), defined as the downstream channel height to the upstream channel height. In spite of the relative simplicity of this geometry, the flow downstream is quite complex. The main focus of the present work is to elucidate the unsteady three-dimensional coherent structures present in this flow at large Re, Re>36,000,based on the step height(h). For this, we use velocity field measurements from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)in conjunction with hotwire anemometry measurements.
The time-averaged structure of this flow is first studied in detail, including the effect of Reynolds number(Re) and Expansion Ratio(ER), on it. These studies show that at sufficiently large Re (Re>20,000), the reattachment length becomes independent of Re. The detailed internal structure of the separation bubble is also found to be independent of Re, but for Revalues that are relatively larger(Re>36,000). At large Re, the main effect of ER ,is found to be on the reattachment length, which increases with ER and saturates for ER values greater than about 1.8. The detailed internal structure of the separation bubble has been mapped at high Re and is found to be nearly the same for all ER, when the streamwise length is normalized by the reattachment length.
In order to elucidate the unsteady coherent vortical structures, PIV measurements are done in two orthogonal planes downstream of the backward-facing step. These measurements are done for ER= 1.50 at large Re(Re=36,000) and in a large aspect ratio facility(AR= span length/step height= 24); the latter being important to avoid any effects due to span-wise confinement. In the spanwise plane parallel to the lower wall(x-z plane),instantaneous velocity fields show counter rotating vortex pairs, which is a signature of the three-dimensional vortical structures in this plane. Using conditional averaging, this counter-rotating vortex pair signature is captured right from upstream of the step, to well after reattachment. Spatial correlations are used to get the length scale of these coherent vortical structures, which varies substantially from the attached boundary layer before separation to the region after reattachment. The variation of these structures in the cross-stream (vertical) direction at reattachment and beyond gives an idea about their three dimensional shape. The circulation of these counter-rotating pairs is measured from the conditionally aver-aged fields, and is found to increase with streamwise distance reaching normalized circulation values (Γ/Uoh) of about 0.5 around reattachment.
Velocity spectra downstream of the step show peaks corresponding to both the shear layer frequency(Stsl)and a relatively lower frequency that corresponds to large-scale shedding from the separation bubble (Stb); the latter in particular being quasi-periodic. Small amplitude sinusoidal forcing at the shedding frequency(Stb) is applied close to the step, by blowing and suction, to make the quasi-periodic shedding more regular. Measurements show that this has a very small effect on both the mean separation bubble and on the counter-rotating structures in the x-z plane. This mild forcing however enables phase locked PIV measurements to be made which shows the bubble shedding phenomenon in the cross-stream plane(side view or x-y plane).
The phase-averaged velocity fields show significant variations from phase to phase. Although there is some hint of structures being shed, from these phase-averaged fields, it is not very clear. One of the primary reasons is the fact that the flow is effectively spanwise averaged, as the three-dimensional structures are not locked in the spanwise direction. To get a three dimensional view of the sheddin gphenomenon, it is necessary to lock the spanwise location with respect to the three-dimensional vortical structures before averaging across the different phases. We use the condition, u’<- urms, to locate the central plane between the counter-rotating structures, which in effect are the “legs” of the three-dimensional structure. With this condition, we effectively get a slice of the shedding cycle cutting through the “head” of the three-dimensional structure. Apart from this cut, we also get a cut between adjacent structures from the weak sweep events, with the condition u’<- urms. Using these conditions, on the phase-locked velocity fields, we effectively lock the structures in time, as well as in the spanwise direction. With this ,a clearer picture of the shedding process emerges. The flow is highly three-dimensional near reattachment and the shedding of the separation bubble is modulated in the spanwise direction owing to the three-dimensional hairpin like vortical structures in the flow. The separation bubble is seen bulged out and lifted high at locations where the head of the hairpin vortex passes, owing to the strong ejection of fluid caused by the vortical structure. On the other hand, outside the hairpin vortices, weak sweep events push the flow towards the wall and make it shallow and less prominent, with the shedding being very weak in this plane. From these observations, a three-dimensional picture of the flow is proposed.2016-06-20T18:30:00ZStudy Of Multiple Asperity Sliding Contacts
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2538
Title: Study Of Multiple Asperity Sliding Contacts
Authors: Muthu Krishnan, M
Abstract: Surfaces are rough, unless special care is taken to make them atomically smooth. Roughness exists at all scales, and any surface-producing operation affects the roughness in certain degrees, specific to the production process. When two surfaces are brought close to each other, contact is established at many isolated locations. The number and size of these contact islands depend on the applied load, material properties of the surfaces and the nature of roughness. These contact islands affect the tribological properties of the contacting surfaces. The real contact area, which is the sum total of the area of contacting islands, is much smaller than the apparent contact area dictated by the macroscopic geometry of the contacting surfaces. Since the total load is supported by these contact islands, the local contact pressure will be very high, and dependent on the local microscopic geometry of the roughness. Thus understanding the deformation behaviour of the rough surfaces will lead to better understanding of friction and wear properties of the surfaces. In this work, the interaction of these contact islands with each other is studied when two surfaces are in contact and sliding past each other.
Asperities can be thought of as basic units of roughness. The geometry and the distribution of heights of asperities can be used to define the roughness. For example, one of the earliest models of roughness is that of hemispherical asperities carrying smaller hemispherical asperities on their back, which in turn carry smaller asperities, and soon. In the present study the asperities are assumed to be of uniform size, shape and distribution. Normal and tangential loading response of these asperities with a rigid indenter is studied through elastic-plastic plane strain finite element studies.
As a rigid indenter is loaded onto a surface with a regular array of identical asperities, initial contact is established at a single asperity. The plastic zone is initially confined within the asperity. When the load is increased ,the elastic-plastic boundary moves towards the free surface of the asperity, and the contact pressure decreases. The geometry and spacing are determined when the neighbouring asperities come into contact. The plastic zone in these asperities is constrained, and hence contact pressure sustained by these asperities is larger. As the indentation progresses, more asperities come into contact in a similar way. If a tangential displacement is now applied to the indenter, the von Mises stress contours shift in the direction of indenter displacement. As the tangential displacement increases, the number of asperities in contact with the indenter decreases gradually before reaching a steady sliding state.
The tangential sliding force experienced by the indenter arises from two components. One is the frictional resistance between the contacting surfaces and the other is due to the plastic deformation of the substrate. If the surface is completely elastic, it has been seen that the sliding force is purely due to the specified friction coefficient. For the smooth surface, as the subsurface makes the transition from purely elastic to confined plastic zone, plasticity breaks out on the free surface, hence the sliding force increases. For surfaces with asperities, even at very small load, the asperities deform plastically and hence the sliding force is considerably higher.
The frictional force is experimentally measured by sliding a spherical indenter on smooth and rough surfaces. These experimental results are qualitatively compared with two dimensional finite element results. It has been observed that for rough surface, sliding force is considerablyhigherthanthesmoothsurface,asisobservedinsimu-lations at lower loads. In contrast to the simulations, the sliding force decreases at higher loads for both the smooth and rough surfaces.2016-06-17T18:30:00ZPrediction Of The Mechanical Behaviour Of A Closed Cell Aluminium Foam Using Advanced Nonlinear Finite Element Modelling
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2537
Title: Prediction Of The Mechanical Behaviour Of A Closed Cell Aluminium Foam Using Advanced Nonlinear Finite Element Modelling
Authors: Mahesh, C
Abstract: Cellular materials like aluminum foam which is the subject of interest here are generally characterized by high energy absorption capacity per unit weight. Materials of this category can be ideal for applications such as packaging and vehicle body structures for enhanced impact safety. A particularly well-known variety of closed-cell aluminum foam is designated as Alporas, which is studied here. From a viewpoint of mechanical behavior, the foam being considered can be represented using either a detailed cellular approach capturing the voids present in foam structure or a phenomenological approach in which experimental stress-strain response is assigned a-priori to solid elements filling up the space occupied by a foam geometry. Both modeling approaches are studied in the present work. It has been shown for the first time that stress-strain behavior under compression including densification can be predicted well with a Kelvin cell-based model, although scope for further improvement exists. Based on a novel combination of compression tests at low strain rates in a UTM and medium strain rates in low velocity impact tests, a relation between foam strength and strain rate has been proposed. This effect of strain rate on strength is captured in a finite element model for analysis using an explicit code with contact simulation capabilities and the predictions for projectile impact tests at higher strain rates using a gas gun-based device have been found to match commendably with results obtained from the said tests.2016-05-05T18:30:00ZStudy Of Solidification And Microstructure Produced By Cooling Slope Method
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2536
Title: Study Of Solidification And Microstructure Produced By Cooling Slope Method
Authors: Kund, Nirmala Kumar
Abstract: In most casting applications, dendritic microstructure morphology is not desired because it leads to poor mechanical properties. Forced convection causing sufficient shearing in the mushy zone of the partially solidified melt is one of the means to suppress this dendritic growth. The dendrites formed at the solid-liquid interface are detached and carried away due to strong fluid flow to form slurry. This slurry, consisting of rosette or globular particles, provides less resistance to flow even at a high solid fraction and can easily fill the die-cavity. The stated principle is the basis of a new manufacturing technology called “semi-solid forming” (SSF), in which metal alloys are cast in the semi-solid state. This technique has numerous advantages over other existing commercial casting processes, such as reduction of macrosegregation, reduction of porosity and low forming efforts. Among all currently available methods available for large scale production of semisolid slurry, the cooling slope is considered to be a simple but effective method because of its simple design and easy control of process parameters, low equipment and running costs, high production efficiency and reduced inhomogeneity. With this perspective, the primary objective of the present research is to investigate, both experimentally and numerically, convective heat transfer and solidification on a cooling slope, in addition to the study of final microstructure of the cast billets.
Some key process parameters are identified, namely pouring temperature, slope angle, slope length, and slope cooling rate. A systematic scaling analysis is performed in order to understand the relative importance of the parameters in influencing the final properties of the slurry and microstructure after solidification. A major part of the present work deals with the development of an experimental set up with careful consideration of the range of process parameters involved by treating the cooling slope as a heat exchanger. Subsequently, a comprehensive numerical model is developed to predict the flow, heat transfer, species concentration solid fraction distribution of aluminum alloy melt while flowing down the cooling slope. The model uses a variable viscosity relation for slurry. The metal-air interface at the top during the melt flow is tracked using a volume of fluid (VOF) method. Solidification is modeled using an enthalpy based approach and a volume averaged technique. The mushy region is modeled as a multi-layered porous medium consisting of fixed columnar dendrites and mobile equiaxed or fragmented grains. In addition, the solidification model also incorporates a fragmentation criterion and solid phase movement.
The effects of key process parameters on flow behavior involving velocity distribution, temperature distribution, solid fractions at the slope exit, and macrosegregation, are studied numerically and experimentally for aluminium alloy A356. The resulting microstructures of the cast billets obtained from the experiments are studied and characterized. Finally the experimental results are linked to the model predictions for establishing the relations involving interdependence of the stated key process parameters in determining the quality of the final cast products. This study is aimed towards providing the necessary guidelines for designing a cooling slope and optimizing the process parameters for desirable quality of the solidified product.2016-05-04T18:30:00Z