etd@IISc Community:
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/6
2017-10-19T06:53:18ZLarge Area Electronics with Fluids : Field Effect on 2-D Fluid Ribbons for Desalination And Energy Harvesting
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2725
Title: Large Area Electronics with Fluids : Field Effect on 2-D Fluid Ribbons for Desalination And Energy Harvesting
Authors: Kodali, Prakash
Abstract: This work studies the influence of field effect on large area 2 dimensional ribbons of fluids. A fluid of choice is confined in the channel of a metal-insulator-channel-insulator-metal architecture and is subjected to constant (d.c) or alternating (a.c) fields (de-pending on the application) along with a pressure drive flow. A general fluid would be composed of molecules having certain polarizability and be a dispersion of non-ionic and ionic particulates. The field effect response under pressure driven flow for this fluid would result in electrophoresis, electro osmosis, dielectrophoresis, dipole-dipole interaction and inverse electro osmosis phenomena. Using some of these phenomena we study applications related to desalination and energy harvesting with saline water as the ex-ample fluid for the former case, and solution processed poly vinyldene fluoride (PVDF) for the latter case. The geometrical features of \large area" and the \ribbon shape" can be taken advantage of to influence the design and performance for both applications.
With regards to desalination, it is shown via experiments and theoretical models that the presence of alternating electric fields aid in ion separation along the flow when the saline water is subjected to laminar flow. Moreover, the power consumption is low due to the presence of the insulator. An average of 30% ion removal efficiency and 15% throughput is observed in the systems fabricated. Both performance parameters are discussion can be improved upon with larger channel lengths. The \2-D ribbon" and alternating field effect aid in achieving this by patterning the randomly distributed ions in the bulk into a smooth sheet charge and then repelling this sheet charge back into the bulk. The electric field exhibited by this sheet charge helps trap more ion sheets near the interface, thereby converting a surface ion trapping phenomena (when d.c is used) to a bulk phenomena and thereby improving efficiency.
With regards to energy harvesting, a solution of PVDF in methyl ethyl ketone and 1-methyl-2-pyrollidone is confined to the \2-D ribbon" geometry and subject to high d.c fields. This aids in combining the fabrication, patterning and poling process for PVDF into one setup. Since the shape of the ribbon is defined by the shape of the channel, the ribbons (straight or serrated) can be used to sense forces of various magnitudes. More importantly experiments and theoretical models are studied for energy harvesting. Since the ribbon geometry defines the resonant frequency, large PVDF ribbon can be used to harvest energy from low frequency vibrations. Experiments show that up to 60 microwatt power can be harvested at 200 Hz and is sufficient to supplement the power for ICs.2017-10-17T18:30:00ZAutomation of Microscopic Tests for Cyto-diagnostics Using Custom-built Slide Scanner
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2717
Title: Automation of Microscopic Tests for Cyto-diagnostics Using Custom-built Slide Scanner
Authors: Swetha, M
Abstract: Optical microscopy is the simplest and the gold standard method adopted for the screening and subsequent diagnosis of various hematological and infectious diseases like malaria, sickle cell disease, tuberculosis etc. In addition to infectious disease diagnosis, its applications range from routine blood tests to the more sophisticated cancer biopsy sample analysis. Microscopy Tests (MTs) follow a common procedural workflow: (1) A technician prepares a smear of the given sample on a glass slide in a specific manner depending on the sample and the disease to be diagnosed; (2) The smeared slide is subsequently exposed to fixative agents and different histochemical stains specific to the diagnosis to be performed and (3) the prepared slide is then observed under a high quality bright- field bench-top microscope. An expert pathologist/cytologist is required to manually examine multiple fields-of-views of the prepared slide under appropriate magnification. Multiple re-adjustments in the focus and magnification makes the process of microscopic examination time consuming and tedious. Further, the manual intervention required in all the aforementioned steps involved in a typical MT, makes it inaccessible to rural/resource limited conditions and restricts the diagnostics to be performed by trained personnel in laboratory settings. To overcome these limitations, there has been considerable research interest in developing cost-effective systems that help in automating MTs.
The work done in this thesis addresses these issues and proposes a two-step solution to the problem of affordable automation of MTs for cellular imaging and subsequent diagnostic assessment. The first step deals with the development of a low cost portable system that employs custom-built microscopy setup using o -the-shelf optical components, low cost motorized stage and camera modules to facilitate slide scanning and digital image acquisition. It incorporates a novel computational approach to generate good quality in-focus images, without the need for employing high-end precision translational stages, thereby reducing the overall system cost. The process of slide analysis for result generation is further automated by using image analysis and classification algorithms. The application of the developed platform in automating slide based quantitative detection of malaria is reported in this thesis.
The second aspect of the thesis addresses the automation of slide preparation. A major factor that could influence the analysis results is the quality of the prepared smears. The feasibility of automating and standardizing the process of slide preparation using Microfluidics with appropriate surface fictionalization is explored and is demonstrated in the context of automated semen analysis. As an alternative to the mechanism of fixing the spermatozoa to the glass slide by smearing and chemical treatment with fixative, microfluidic chips pre-coated with adhesive protein are employed to capture and immobilize the cells. The subsequent histochemical staining is achieved by pumping the stains through the microfluidic device. The proof-of-principle experiments performed in this thesis demonstrate the feasibility of the developed system to provide an end-to-end cost-effective alternative solution to conventional MTs. This can further serve as an assistive tool for the pathologist or in some cases completely eliminate the manual intervention required in MTs enabling repeatability and reliability in diagnosis for clinical decision making2017-10-10T18:30:00ZInvestigation of Nonlinearities in Graphene Based NEMS
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2704
Title: Investigation of Nonlinearities in Graphene Based NEMS
Authors: Parmar, Marsha Mary
Abstract: Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) have drawn considerable attention towards several sensing applications such as force, spin, charge and mass. These devices due to their smaller size, operate at very high frequencies (MHz - GHz) and have very high quality factors (102 -105). However, the early onset of nonlinearity limits the linear dynamic range of these devices. In this work we investigate the nonlinearities and their effect on the performance of graphene based NEMS.
Electromechanical devices based on 2D materials are extremely sensitive to strain. We studied the effect of strain on the performance of single layer Graphene NEMS and show how the strain in Graphene NEMS can be tuned to increase the range of linear operation. Electromechanical properties of the doubly clamped graphene resonators deviates from the flat rectangular plate as the former possesses geometrical imperfections which are sometimes orders of magnitude larger than the thickness of the resonator. Due to these imperfections we report an initial softening behavior, turning to strong hardening nonlinearity for larger vibration amplitude in the back-bone curve.
We have also studied the frequency stability of graphene resonators. Frequency stability analysis indicates departure from the nominal frequency of the resonator with time. We have used Allan Variance as a tool to characterize the frequency stability of the device. Frequency stability of graphene resonator is studied in an open loop configuration as a function of temperature and bias voltage. The thesis concludes with a remark on the future work that can be carried out based on the present studies.2017-10-04T18:30:00ZOn The Structure of Proper Holomorphic Mappings
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2695
Title: On The Structure of Proper Holomorphic Mappings
Authors: Jaikrishnan, J
Abstract: The aim of this dissertation is to give explicit descriptions of the set of proper holomorphic mappings between two complex manifolds with reasonable restrictions on the domain and target spaces. Without any restrictions, this problem is intractable even when posed for do-mains in . We give partial results for special classes of manifolds. We study, broadly, two types of structure results:
Descriptive. The first result of this thesis is a structure theorem for finite proper holomorphic mappings between products of connected, hyperbolic open subsets of compact Riemann surfaces. A special case of our result follows from the techniques used in a classical result due to Remmert and Stein, adapted to the above setting. However, the presence of factors that have no boundary or boundaries that consist of a discrete set of points necessitates the use of techniques that are quite divergent from those used by Remmert and Stein. We make use of a finiteness theorem of Imayoshi to deal with these factors.
Rigidity. A famous theorem of H. Alexander proves the non-existence of non-injective proper holomorphic self-maps of the unit ball in . ,n >1. Several extensions of this result for various classes of domains have been established since the appearance of Alexander’s result, and it is conjectured that the result is true for all bounded domains in . , n > 1, whose boundary is C2-smooth. This conjecture is still very far from being settled. Our first rigidity result establishes the non-existence of non-injective proper holomorphic self-maps of bounded, balanced pseudo convex domains of finite type (in the sense of D’Angelo) in ,n >1. This generalizes a result in 2, by Coupet, Pan and Sukhov, to higher dimensions. As in Coupet–Pan–Sukhov, the aforementioned domains need not have real-analytic boundaries. However, in higher dimensions, several aspects of their argument do not work. Instead, we exploit the circular symmetry and a recent result in complex dynamics by Opshtein.
Our next rigidity result is for bounded symmetric domains. We prove that a proper holomorphic map between two non-planar bounded symmetric domains of the same dimension, one of them being irreducible, is a biholomorphism. Our methods allow us to give a single, all-encompassing argument that unifies the various special cases in which this result is known. Furthermore, our proof of this result does not rely on the fine structure (in the sense of Wolf et al.) of bounded symmetric domains. Thus, we are able to apply our techniques to more general classes of domains. We illustrate this by proving a rigidity result for certain convex balanced domains whose automorphism groups are assumed to only be non-compact. For bounded symmetric domains, our key tool is that of Jordan triple systems, which is used to describe the boundary geometry.2017-09-27T18:30:00Z