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http://hdl.handle.net/2005/6
2015-11-27T19:40:05ZCurvature Calculations Of The Operators In Cowen-Douglas Class
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2284
Title: Curvature Calculations Of The Operators In Cowen-Douglas Class
Authors: Deb, Prahllad
Abstract: In a foundational paper “Operators Possesing an Open Set of Eigenvalues” written several decades ago, Cowen and Douglas showed that an operator T on a Hilbert space ‘H possessing an open set Ω C of eigenvalues determines a holomorphic Hermitian vector bundle ET . One of the basic theorems they prove states that the unitary equivalence class of the operator T and the equivalence class of the holomorphic Hermitian vector bundle ET are in one to one correspondence. This correspondence appears somewhat mysterious until one detects the invariants for the vector bundle ET in the operator T and vice-versa. Fortunately, this is possible in some cases. Thus they point out that if the operator T possesses the additional property that the dimension of the eigenspace at ω is 1 for all ω Ω then the map ω ker(T - ω) admits a non-zero holomorphic section, say γ, and therefore defines a line bundle on Ω. As is well known, the curvature defined by the formula is a complete invariant for the line bundle . On the other hand, define
and note that NT (ω)2 = 0. It follows that if T is unitarily equivalent to T˜, then the corresponding operators NT (ω) and NT˜(ω) are unitarily equivalent for all ω Ω. However, Cowen and Douglas prove the non-trivial converse, namely that if NT (ω) and NT˜(ω) are unitarily equivalent for all ω Ω then T and T˜ are unitarily equivalent. What does this have to do with the line bundles and .To answer this question, we must ask what is a complete invariant for the unitary equivalence class of the operator NT (ω). To find such a complete invariant we represent NT (ω) with respect to the orthonormal basis obtained from the two linearly independent vectors γ(ω),∂γ(ω) by Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization process. Then an easy computation shows that It then follows that is a complete invariant for NT (ω), ω Ω. This explains the relationship between the line bundle and the operator T in an explicit manner.
Subsequently, in the paper ”Operators Possesing an Open Set of Eigenvalues”, Cowen and Douglas define a class of commuting operators possessing an open set of eigenvalues and attempt to provide similar computations as above. However, they give the details only for a pair of commuting operators. While the results of that paper remain true in the case of an arbitrary n tuple of commuting operators, it requires additional effort which we explain in this thesis.2014-03-02T18:30:00ZStudies Of Electronic, Magnetic And Entanglement Properties Of Correlated Models In Low-Dimensional Systems
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2480
Title: Studies Of Electronic, Magnetic And Entanglement Properties Of Correlated Models In Low-Dimensional Systems
Authors: Sahoo, Shaon
Abstract: This thesis consists of six chapters. The first chapter gives an introduction to the field of low-dimensional magnetic and electronic systems and relevant numerical techniques. The recent developments in molecular magnets are highlighted. The numerical techniques are reviewed along with their advantages and disadvantages from the present perspective. Study of entanglement of a system can give a great insight into the system. At the last part of this chapter a general overview is given regarding entanglement, its measures and its significance in studying many-body systems.
Chapter 2 deals with the technique that has been developed by us for the full symmetry adaptation of non-relativistic Hamiltonians. It is advantageous both computationally and physically/chemically to exploit both spin and spatial symmetries of a system. It has been a long-standing problem to target a state which has definite total spin and also belongs to a definite irreducible representation of a point group, particularly for non-Abelian point groups. A very general technique is discussed in this chapter which is a hybrid method based on valence-bond basis and the basis of the z-component of the total spin. This technique is not only applicable to a system with arbitrary site spins and belonging to any point group symmetry, it is also quite easy to implement computationally. To demonstrate the power of the method, it is applied to the molecular magnetic system, Cu6Fe8, with cubic symmetry.
In chapter 3, the extension of the previous hybrid technique to electronic systems is discussed. The power of the method is illustrated by applying it to a model icosahedral half-filled electronic system. This model spans a huge Hilbert space (dimension 1,778,966) and is in the largest non-Abelian point group. All the eigenstates of the model are obtained using our technique.
Chapter 4 deals with the thermodynamic properties of an important class of single-chain magnets (SCMs). This class of SCMs has alternate isotropic spin-1/2 units and anisotropic high spin units with the anisotropy axes being non-collinear. Here anisotropy is assumed to be large and negative, as a result, anisotropic units behave like canted spins at low temperatures; but even then simple Ising-type model does not capture the essential physics of the system due to quantum mechanical nature of the isotropic units. A transfer matrix (TM) method is developed to study statistical behavior of this class of SCMs. For the first time, it is also discussed in detail that how weak inter-chain interactions can be treated by a TM method. The finite size effect is also discussed which becomes important for low temperature dynamics. This technique is applied to a real helical chain magnet, which has been studied experimentally.
In the fifth chapter a bipartite entanglement entropy of finite systems is studied using exact diagonalization techniques to examine how the entanglement changes in the presence of long-range interactions. The PariserParrPople model with long-range interactions is used for this purpose and corresponding results are com-pared with those for the Hubbard and Heisenberg models with short-range interactions. This study helps understand why the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) technique is so successful even in the presence of long-range interactions in the PPP model. It is also investigated if the symmetry properties of a state vector have any significance in relation to its entanglement. Finally, an interesting observation is made on the entanglement profiles of different states, across the full energy spectrum, in comparison with the corresponding profile of the density of states.
The entanglement can be localized between two noncomplementary parts of a many-body system by performing local measurements on the rest of the system. This localized entanglement (LE) depends on the chosen basis set of measurement (BSM). In this chapter six, an optimality condition for the LE is derived, which would be helpful in finding optimal values of the LE, besides, can also be of use in studying mixed states of a general bipartite system. A canonical way of localizing entanglement is further discussed, where the BSM is not chosen arbitrarily, rather, is fully determined by the properties of a system. The LE obtained in this way, called the localized entanglement by canonical measurement (LECM), is not only easy to calculate practically, it provides a nice way to define the entanglement length. For spin-1/2 systems, the LECM is shown to be optimal in some important cases. At the end of this chapter, some numerical results are presented for j1 −j2 spin model to demonstrate how the LECM behaves.2015-09-03T18:30:00ZRelative Symplectic Caps, Fibered Knots And 4-Genus
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2285
Title: Relative Symplectic Caps, Fibered Knots And 4-Genus
Authors: Kulkarni, Dheeraj
Abstract: The 4-genus of a knot in S3 is an important measure of complexity, related to the unknotting number. A fundamental result used to study the 4-genus and related invariants of homology classes is the Thom conjecture, proved by Kronheimer-Mrowka, and its symplectic extension due to Ozsv´ath-Szab´o, which say that closed symplectic surfaces minimize genus.
In this thesis, we prove a relative version of the symplectic capping theorem. More precisely, suppose (X, ω) is a symplectic 4-manifold with contact type bounday ∂X and Σ is a symplectic surface in X such that ∂Σ is a transverse knot in ∂X. We show that there is a closed symplectic 4-manifold Y with a closed symplectic submanifold S such that the pair (X, Σ) embeds symplectically into (Y, S). This gives a proof of the relative version of Symplectic Thom Conjecture. We use this to study 4-genus of fibered knots in S3 .
We also prove a relative version of the sufficiency part of Giroux’s criterion for Stein fillability, namely, we show that a fibered knot whose mondoromy is a product of positive Dehn twists bounds a symplectic surface in a Stein filling. We use this to study 4-genus of fibered knots in S3 . Using this result, we give a criterion for quasipostive fibered knots to be strongly quasipositive.
Symplectic convexity disc bundles is a useful tool in constructing symplectic fillings of contact manifolds. We show the symplectic convexity of the unit disc bundle in a Hermitian holomorphic line bundle over a Riemann surface.2014-04-06T18:30:00ZVector Bundles Over Hypersurfaces Of Projective Varieties
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2318
Title: Vector Bundles Over Hypersurfaces Of Projective Varieties
Authors: Tripathi, Amit
Abstract: In this thesis we study some questions related to vector bundles over hypersurfaces. More precisely, for hypersurfaces of dimension ≥ 2, we study the extension problem of vector bundles. We find some cohomological conditions under which a vector bundle over an ample divisor of non-singular projective variety, extends as a vector bundle to an open set containing that ample divisor.
Our method is to follow the general Groethendieck-Lefschetz theory by showing that a vector bundle extension exists over various thickenings of the ample divisor.
For vector bundles of rank > 1, we find two separate cohomological conditions on vector bundles which shows the extension to an open set containing the ample divisor. For the case of line bundles, our method unifies and recovers the generalized Noether-Lefschetz theorems by Joshi and Ravindra-Srinivas.
In the last part of the thesis, we make a specific study of vector bundles over elliptic curve.2014-06-01T18:30:00Z