etd@IISc Community:
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/6
Thu, 14 Apr 2016 10:16:47 GMT2016-04-14T10:16:47ZFiber Bragg Grating Sensors : An Exploration Of Applications In Diverse Fields
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2507
Title: Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors : An Exploration Of Applications In Diverse Fields
Authors: Guru Prasad, A S
Abstract: Sensors have become essential elements in human life for safe and comfortable existence in the ever demanding world. Various technologies over decades have contributed in their own way fulfilling innumerable sensing requirements. The discovery of optical sensor technologies has revolutionized the sensing field due to their inherent advantages. Among the large number of fiber optic sensor technologies, FBG based sensors have become widely known and popular within and outside the photonics community and has seen a prominent rise in their utilization.
This thesis explores the use of FBG sensors for a wide range of applications scanning across a variety of engineering and medical applications, in the areas of civil engineering, biomechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, geoengineering, etc. It also deals with newer methods of packaging FBG sensors for the measurement of specific engineering parameters like strain, temperature, pressure, displacement and vibration.
In the field of civil engineering, FBG sensors are employed for strain sensing on a prism and furthermore tested on a full size brick wallet. During this study, emphasis is made on substituting traditional sensors by specially packaged FBG sensors with the intent of either enhancing the sensing system’s performance or in merging/uniting the inherent advantages of FBG sensors.
In the area of biomechanics, a novel sensor methodology using FBG sensors, for measuring surface strains generated on the skin of the calf muscle during various leg exercises is proposed. This methodology is used to address one of the most critical and life threatening issues in long distance air travel, namely the Deep Vein Thrombosis. Further, a FBG sensor based plantar sensing plate, is designed and developed, to measure plantar strain distribution in foot and also to analyze the postural stability.
In the field of aerospace engineering, FBG sensors are used for addressing two of the most vital issues; Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and direct measurement of pressure and temperature on the surface of an aircraft under hypersonic wind flow. Carbon Fiber Composite coupon level testing is carried out to obtain a generic strain calibration factor for the FBG sensor. Further, FBG sensors are exploited for the direct measurement of absolute temperature and pressure on the leeward surface of blunt cone at hypersonic wind speeds.
In the domain of geoengineering, the feasibility studies have been undertaken to use a FBG as a seismic sensor and as a bore-well characterizing sensor. A novel FBG seismic sensor package is developed using a single FBG sensor to pick up the seismic waves propagating through the ground generated from earthquakes and ground tremors. Further, FBG sensors are used for measurement of temperature profiles in a bore-well to delineate and characterize the behavior of fractures during seasonal climatic changes. To summarize, the present thesis demonstrates a comprehensive experimental study which bring out the utility of FBG sensors in a variety of challenging applications.Mon, 29 Feb 2016 18:30:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/25072016-02-29T18:30:00ZCurvature Calculations Of The Operators In Cowen-Douglas Class
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2284
Title: Curvature Calculations Of The Operators In Cowen-Douglas Class
Authors: Deb, Prahllad
Abstract: In a foundational paper “Operators Possesing an Open Set of Eigenvalues” written several decades ago, Cowen and Douglas showed that an operator T on a Hilbert space ‘H possessing an open set Ω C of eigenvalues determines a holomorphic Hermitian vector bundle ET . One of the basic theorems they prove states that the unitary equivalence class of the operator T and the equivalence class of the holomorphic Hermitian vector bundle ET are in one to one correspondence. This correspondence appears somewhat mysterious until one detects the invariants for the vector bundle ET in the operator T and vice-versa. Fortunately, this is possible in some cases. Thus they point out that if the operator T possesses the additional property that the dimension of the eigenspace at ω is 1 for all ω Ω then the map ω ker(T - ω) admits a non-zero holomorphic section, say γ, and therefore defines a line bundle on Ω. As is well known, the curvature defined by the formula is a complete invariant for the line bundle . On the other hand, define
and note that NT (ω)2 = 0. It follows that if T is unitarily equivalent to T˜, then the corresponding operators NT (ω) and NT˜(ω) are unitarily equivalent for all ω Ω. However, Cowen and Douglas prove the non-trivial converse, namely that if NT (ω) and NT˜(ω) are unitarily equivalent for all ω Ω then T and T˜ are unitarily equivalent. What does this have to do with the line bundles and .To answer this question, we must ask what is a complete invariant for the unitary equivalence class of the operator NT (ω). To find such a complete invariant we represent NT (ω) with respect to the orthonormal basis obtained from the two linearly independent vectors γ(ω),∂γ(ω) by Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization process. Then an easy computation shows that It then follows that is a complete invariant for NT (ω), ω Ω. This explains the relationship between the line bundle and the operator T in an explicit manner.
Subsequently, in the paper ”Operators Possesing an Open Set of Eigenvalues”, Cowen and Douglas define a class of commuting operators possessing an open set of eigenvalues and attempt to provide similar computations as above. However, they give the details only for a pair of commuting operators. While the results of that paper remain true in the case of an arbitrary n tuple of commuting operators, it requires additional effort which we explain in this thesis.Sun, 02 Mar 2014 18:30:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/22842014-03-02T18:30:00ZStudies Of Electronic, Magnetic And Entanglement Properties Of Correlated Models In Low-Dimensional Systems
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2480
Title: Studies Of Electronic, Magnetic And Entanglement Properties Of Correlated Models In Low-Dimensional Systems
Authors: Sahoo, Shaon
Abstract: This thesis consists of six chapters. The first chapter gives an introduction to the field of low-dimensional magnetic and electronic systems and relevant numerical techniques. The recent developments in molecular magnets are highlighted. The numerical techniques are reviewed along with their advantages and disadvantages from the present perspective. Study of entanglement of a system can give a great insight into the system. At the last part of this chapter a general overview is given regarding entanglement, its measures and its significance in studying many-body systems.
Chapter 2 deals with the technique that has been developed by us for the full symmetry adaptation of non-relativistic Hamiltonians. It is advantageous both computationally and physically/chemically to exploit both spin and spatial symmetries of a system. It has been a long-standing problem to target a state which has definite total spin and also belongs to a definite irreducible representation of a point group, particularly for non-Abelian point groups. A very general technique is discussed in this chapter which is a hybrid method based on valence-bond basis and the basis of the z-component of the total spin. This technique is not only applicable to a system with arbitrary site spins and belonging to any point group symmetry, it is also quite easy to implement computationally. To demonstrate the power of the method, it is applied to the molecular magnetic system, Cu6Fe8, with cubic symmetry.
In chapter 3, the extension of the previous hybrid technique to electronic systems is discussed. The power of the method is illustrated by applying it to a model icosahedral half-filled electronic system. This model spans a huge Hilbert space (dimension 1,778,966) and is in the largest non-Abelian point group. All the eigenstates of the model are obtained using our technique.
Chapter 4 deals with the thermodynamic properties of an important class of single-chain magnets (SCMs). This class of SCMs has alternate isotropic spin-1/2 units and anisotropic high spin units with the anisotropy axes being non-collinear. Here anisotropy is assumed to be large and negative, as a result, anisotropic units behave like canted spins at low temperatures; but even then simple Ising-type model does not capture the essential physics of the system due to quantum mechanical nature of the isotropic units. A transfer matrix (TM) method is developed to study statistical behavior of this class of SCMs. For the first time, it is also discussed in detail that how weak inter-chain interactions can be treated by a TM method. The finite size effect is also discussed which becomes important for low temperature dynamics. This technique is applied to a real helical chain magnet, which has been studied experimentally.
In the fifth chapter a bipartite entanglement entropy of finite systems is studied using exact diagonalization techniques to examine how the entanglement changes in the presence of long-range interactions. The PariserParrPople model with long-range interactions is used for this purpose and corresponding results are com-pared with those for the Hubbard and Heisenberg models with short-range interactions. This study helps understand why the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) technique is so successful even in the presence of long-range interactions in the PPP model. It is also investigated if the symmetry properties of a state vector have any significance in relation to its entanglement. Finally, an interesting observation is made on the entanglement profiles of different states, across the full energy spectrum, in comparison with the corresponding profile of the density of states.
The entanglement can be localized between two noncomplementary parts of a many-body system by performing local measurements on the rest of the system. This localized entanglement (LE) depends on the chosen basis set of measurement (BSM). In this chapter six, an optimality condition for the LE is derived, which would be helpful in finding optimal values of the LE, besides, can also be of use in studying mixed states of a general bipartite system. A canonical way of localizing entanglement is further discussed, where the BSM is not chosen arbitrarily, rather, is fully determined by the properties of a system. The LE obtained in this way, called the localized entanglement by canonical measurement (LECM), is not only easy to calculate practically, it provides a nice way to define the entanglement length. For spin-1/2 systems, the LECM is shown to be optimal in some important cases. At the end of this chapter, some numerical results are presented for j1 −j2 spin model to demonstrate how the LECM behaves.Thu, 03 Sep 2015 18:30:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/24802015-09-03T18:30:00ZElasticity And Structural Phase Transitions Of Nanoscale Objects
http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2498
Title: Elasticity And Structural Phase Transitions Of Nanoscale Objects
Authors: Mogurampelly, Santosh
Abstract: Elastic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT), boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT), double stranded DNA (dsDNA), paranemic-juxtapose crossover (PX-JX) DNA and dendrimer bound DNA are discussed in this thesis. Structural phase transitions of nucleic acids induced by external force, carbon nanotubes and graphene substrate are also studied extensively. Electrostatic interactions have a strong effect on the elastic properties of BNNTs due to large partial atomic charges on boron and nitrogen atoms. We have computed Young’s modulus (Y ) and shear modulus (G) of BNNT and CNT as a function of the nanotube radius and partial atomic charges on boron and nitrogen atoms using molecular mechanics calculation. Our calculation shows that Young’s modulus of BNNTs increases with increase in magnitude of the partial atomic charges on B and N atoms and can be larger than the Young’s modulus of CNTs of same radius. Shear modulus, on the other hand depends weakly on the magnitude of partial atomic charges and is always less than the shear modulus of the CNT. The values obtained for Young’s modulus and shear modulus are in excellent agreement with the available experimental results. We also study the elasticity of dsDNA using equilibrium fluctuation methods as well as nonequilibrium stretching simulations. The results obtained from both methods quantitatively agree with each other. The end-to-end length distribution P(ρ) and angle distribution P(θ) of the dsDNA has a Gaussian form which gives stretch modulus (γ1) to be 708 pN and persistence length (Lp) to be 42 nm, respectively. When dsDNA is stretched along its helix axis, it undergoes a large conformational change and elongates about 1.7 times its initial contour length at a critical force. Applying a force perpendicular to the DNA helix axis, dsDNA gets unzipped and separated into two single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). DNA unzipping is a fundamental process in DNA replication. As the force at one end of the DNA is increased the DNA starts melting above a critical force depending on the pulling direction. The critical force fm , at which dsDNA melts completely decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. The melting force in the case of unzipping is smaller compared to the melting force when the dsDNA is pulled along the helical axis. In the case of melting through unzipping, the double-strand separation has jumps which correspond to the different energy minima arising due to sequence of different base-pairs. Similar force-extension curve has also been observed when crossover DNA molecules are stretched along the helix axis. In the presence of mono-valent Na+ counterions, we find that the stretch modulus (γ1 ) of the paranemic crossover (PX) and its topoisomer juxtapose (JX) DNA structure is significantly higher (30 %) compared to normal B-DNA of the same sequence and length. When the DNA motif is surrounded by a solvent of divalent Mg2+ counterions, we find an enhanced rigidity compared to in Na+ environment due to the electrostatic screening effects arising from the divalent nature of Mg2+ counterions. This is the first direct determination of the mechanical strength of these crossover motifs which can be useful for the design of suitable DNA motifs for DNA based nanostructures and nanomechanical devices with improved structural rigidity. Negatively charged DNA can be compacted by positively charged dendrimer and the degree of compaction is a delicate balance between the strength of the electrostatic interaction and the elasticity of DNA. When the dsDNA is compacted by dendrimer, the stretch modulus, γ1 and persistence length, Lp decreases dramatically due to backbone charge neutralization of dsDNA by dendrimer. We also study the effect of CNT and graphene substrate on the elastic as well as adsorption properties of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and dsDNA. Our results show that siRNA strongly binds to CNT and graphene surface via unzipping its base-pairs and the propensity of unzipping increases with the increase in the diameter of the CNTs and is maximum on graphene. The unzipping and subsequent wrapping events are initiated and driven by van der Waals interactions between the aromatic rings of siRNA nucleobases and the CNT/graphene surface. However, dsDNA of the same sequence undergoes much less unzipping and wrapping on the CNT/graphene due to smaller interaction energy of thymidine of dsDNA with the CNT/graphene compared to that of uridine of siRNA. Unzipping probability distributions fitted to single exponential function give unzipping time (τ) of the order of few nanoseconds which decrease exponentially with temperature. From the temperature variation of unzipping time we estimate the free energy barrier to unzipping. We have also investigated the binding of siRNA to CNT by translocating siRNA inside CNT and find that siRNA spontaneously translocates inside CNT of various diameters and chiralities. Free en- ergy profiles show that siRNA gains free energy while translocating inside CNT and the barrier for siRNA exit from CNT ranges from 40 to 110 kcal/mol depending on CNT chirality and salt concentration. The translocation time τ decreases with the increase of CNT diameter having a critical diameter of 24 A for the translocation. After the optimal binding of siRNA to CNT/graphene, the complex is very stable which can serve as siRNA delivery agent for biomedical applications. Since siRNA has to undergo unwinding process in the presence of RNA-induced silencing complex, our proposed delivery mechanism by single wall CNT possesses potential advantages in achieving RNA interference (RNAi).Sun, 13 Dec 2015 18:30:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2005/24982015-12-13T18:30:00Z