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Title: Breakup Behaviour Of Liquid Sheets Discharging From Gas Centered Swirl Coaxial Atomizers
Authors: Kulkarni, Varun
Advisors: Sivakumar, D
Keywords: Coaxial Atomizers
Liquid Rocket Engines
Atomization
Air Jets - Fluid Dynamics
Sheet Atomization
Liquid Sheets (Atomizers)
Gas Centered Swirl Coaxial Atomizers
Liquid Sheet
Submitted Date: Jun-2009
Series/Report no.: G23374
Abstract: This thesis aims at studying the breakup of swirling liquid sheets discharging from the outer orifice of gas centered swirl coaxial atomizers. Such atomizers are considered as propellant injection systems for semi-cryogenic liquid rocket engines. A gas centered swirl coaxial type atomizer discharges an annular swirling liquid sheet which is atomized by a gaseous jet issuing from the central orifice of the atomizer. The primary objectives of this work were to understand the fluid dynamic interaction process between the outer liquid sheet and the central gas jet and its role on the breakup process of the liquid sheet. Cold flow experiments were carried out by constructing custom made gas centered swirl coaxial atomizers. Two different atomizer configurations with varying swirl effect were studied. The jets were injected into ambient atmospheric air medium with tap water and air as experimental fluids. The flow conditions were described in terms of Weber number (Wel) and Reynolds number (Reg) for liquid sheet and the air jet respectively. Spray images were captured by employing an image acquisition system comprising a high resolution digital camera and a strobe lamp. The captured spray images at different combinations of Wel and Reg were analyzed to extract quantitative measurements of breakup length (Lb), spray cone angle (θs), spray width (SW) and two-dimensional surface profile of liquid sheets. Quantitative analysis of the variation of Lb with Reg with different values of Wel suggested that low inertia liquid sheets undergo an efficient breakup process. High inertia liquid sheets ignore the presence of central air jet at lower values of Reg however undergo air jet breakup at higher values of Reg. Qualitative analysis of experimental observations revealed that the entrainment process, established between the inner surface of the liquid sheet and the boundary of central jet, triggers the air assisted sheet breakup by drawing the liquid sheet closer to the spray axis. The entrainment process may be developing corrugations on the surface of liquid sheet which promotes the production of thick liquid ligaments from the sheet surface. The level of surface corrugations on the liquid sheet, quantified by means of tortuosity of liquid sheet profile, increases with increasing Reg. Limited studies on the effect of variation swirl intensity on the air assisted breakup process of liquid sheets did not show any significant influence for the atomizers examined in the present work.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2005/1119
Appears in Collections:Aerospace Engineering (aero)

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