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|Title: ||Dynamic Dealy Compensation and Synchronisation Services for Continuous Media Streams|
|Authors: ||Shivaprasad, Mala A|
|Advisors: ||Venkataram, P|
|Submitted Date: ||Oct-1995|
|Publisher: ||Indian Institute of Science|
|Abstract: ||Multimedia' nature of an application refers to the presence of several media streams in parallel. Whether it is receiving real-time data or retrieving stored data, there exists an end-to-end delay in data transfer from source to destination over the network. This delay experienced can be split into a fixed part and a variable part. Data processing time like coding and decoding at the source and destination are the fixed delays experienced. The variable delay occurs mainly due to queuing at the intermediate nodes during its flow through the network. The variable or unequal delays introduce gaps or discontinuities within a stream. In multi-stream applications where each stream may flow on different routes based on the bandwidth availability experiencing different delays, mismatch between them can also occur. These discontinuities and skews result in poor quality of playout. Clock drift and variations in drift rates between the source/s and destination/s, clock also lead to poor quality of play out. To eliminate these skews and discontinuities, there must be mechanisms, viz., and synchronisation services to convey, reintroduce and maintain the temporal relationship between the media streams for presentation throughout the playout, at the destination. The reintroduction of this lost temporal relationship within a stream and between various media streams for presentation at the destination is the object of multimedia synchronisation and is the subject matter of this thesis.
In the presence of synchronised clocks, the main cause of asynchronies between media streams is the difference in delays experienced and the jitter. In this work, to convey the temporal relationship between streams of an application to the playout site, each stream is assigned a priority л, based on its importance to the user. The media streams are then divided into synchronisation units called 'Groups' based on that stream's characteristics which has the highest priority л. A group may therefore consist of one video frame and other data which were generated in that interval. Or may consist of silence and talk-spurt periods of the voice stream with data units of other streams generated in the same interval.
Since the quality of playout of temporally related delay-sensitive streams depends upon the delay-experienced, the concept of QoS can be extended to describe the presentation requirements of uch data. Depending on the user perception and the delay experienced, an application can have a range of playout times, giving the best performance. The presentation of many real-time applications can be considered satisfactory even when the delay bound is exceeded by a small amount for a short period of time under varying network conditions. This property can be exploited by defining two sets of QoS parameters, namely QoS optimum and QoSlimit for each real-time application. As the delay and its variations increase, the optimum playout time range
decreases. QoS optimum specifies the performance parameters required to perceive 'realtime'. Multimedia data can be played out at its QoSlimit with a deterioration in quality under poor network conditions still maintaining the synchronisation between streams. To control the playout at two levels of QoS, and maintain intra-media and inter-media synchronisation, stream controllers and super stream controllers have been used.
The dynamic delay compensation algorithm and synchronisation services were simulated using network delay models and performances studied. It is shown that the proposed algorithm not only synchronised media streams and smoothened jitter but also optimised buffer space and buffer occupancy time while meeting the desired quality of service requirements|
|Appears in Collections:||Electrical Communication Engineering (ece)|
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