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Title: Conformational Analysis Of Designed Alpha-Omega Hybrid Peptides
Authors: Roy, Rituparna Sinha
Advisors: Balaram, P
Keywords: Peptides - Conformational Analysis
Conformational Analysis
Hybrid Peptides
Peptides - Helices
Peptide Hairpins
Alpha Amino Acids
Omega Amino Acids
α,β - Hybrid Helices
Hybrid Peptide Hairpins
Submitted Date: Mar-2005
Series/Report no.: G19025
Abstract: The insertion of ω- amino acid residues as guests into host α-peptide sequences permits expansion of the range of polypeptide secondary structures. The term ω- amino acid is used to refer to the entire family of residues generated by homologation of the backbone of α - amino acid residues. This explores the consequences of insertion of substituted β-residues (β3) , unsubstituted β-residues , unsubstituted γ-residues (gamma aminobutyric acid) and unsubstituted δ-residues (delta aminovaleric acid) into host α -peptide sequences. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the conformational properties of β-peptides and reviews current literature on the structural features of peptides containing ω-amino acid residues. The available crystallographic information is summarized. The conformational properties of β- residues may be described by three degrees of torsional freedom : φ (N – Cβ) , θ (Cβ -Cα) and ψ (Cα-CO). Similarly, the conformational properties of γ -residues is based on four torsional parameters ( φ , θ1 , θ2, ψ) and the conformational properties of δ - residues is based on five degrees of freedom ( φ , θ1 , θ2, θ3,ψ). The rational use of β -residues in peptide design requires an understanding of the nature of local conformations, which are readily accessible. The conformational space for β -residues can be represented in a three dimensional plot. The observed distribution of φ , θ and ψ values for β -residues in peptide crystal structures presented in this section permits a correlation - between the torsion angle θ and the secondary structure context. The gauche (g+ and g ) conformations induce helical folding and the trans conformation is generally observed in the strands of a hairpin. The most striking feature of hybrid sequences is the observation of novel hydrogen bonded rings in peptide structures. Chapter 2 describes the effects of insertion of β-residues into specific positions in the strand segments of designed peptide hairpins. Insertion of β -residues into the strands of a hairpin changes the orientation of peptide bonds, resulting in a “polar sheet” arrangement. The conformational analysis of three designed peptide hairpins composed of α/β - hybrid segments are described: Boc-Leu-βPhe-Val-DPro-Gly- Leu-βPhe-Val-OMe (BBH8) , Boc-βLeu- Phe-βVal-DPro-Gly-βLeu-Phe-βVal-OMe (BAB8) and CF3COO-H3N+-Leu-Val-Val-βPhe-DPro-Gly-βPhe-Leu-Val-Val-OMe (BHFF10). All the peptides have been characterized by 500 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy and several crucial long range NOEs confirm a predominant population of β-hairpin conformations in CD3OH. X-ray diffraction studies on single crystals of peptide BBH8 reveal a β-hairpin conformation, stabilized by three cross-strand hydrogen bonds and a Type II′β-turn at the DPro-Gly turn segment. Designed β-hairpin peptide scaffolds may be used to probe cross-strand sidechain interactions in β-sheet structures. A previously reported peptide β-hairpin, Boc-Leu-Phe-Val-DPro-Gly-Leu-Phe-Val-OMe exhibited an anomalous far UV CD spectrum, which was interpreted in terms of interactions between facing aromatic chromophores, Phe 2 and Phe 7 (Zhao, C.; Polavarapu, P.L.; Das,C. and Balaram, P. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2000, 122, 8228-8231). In BBH8 and BHFF10 the two cross-strand βPhe residues are at non-hydrogen bonding positions, with the benzyl sidechains pointing on opposite faces of the β- sheet. BBH8 yields a “hairpin –like” CD spectrum, with a minimum at 224 nm. The CD spectrum of BAB8 reveals a negative band at 234 nm and a positive band at 221 nm suggestive of an exciton split doublet. BHFF10 yields a “hairpine-like” CD spectrum, with a negative band at 220 nm. Chapter 3 describes the synthesis and conformational characterization of three hybrid decapeptides : Boc-Leu-Val-βGly-Val-DPro-Gly- Leu-βGly -Val-Val-OMe (BHB10), Boc-Leu-Val-γAbu-Val-DPro-Gly- Leu-γAbu -Val-Val-OMe (BHC10) and Boc- Leu-Val-δAva-Val-DPro-Gly- Leu-δAva -Val-Val-OMe (BHD10). These peptides were designed to systematically investigate the effect of insertion of additional methylene groups into the strands of a hairpin. The incorporation of additional carbon atoms changes the local polarity of the strands. 500 MHz NMR studies establish that BHB10 and BHD10 adopt predominantly β- hairpin conformations in methanol, with interstrand registry established by observation of long range NOEs. The observation of both DPro 4 (CαH) ↔ Gly 5 (NH) and Gly 5 (NH) ↔ Leu 6 (NH) NOEs provides evidence for a Type II ′β - turn for all the hairpins. In BHC10, no long range NOEs were observed. However, X-ray diffraction studies in single crystals reveal a β- hairpin conformation, nucleated by a DPro-Gly Type II′β-turn. Chapter 4 describes an attempt to incorporate one or two ω amino acid residues in the turn region of a potential hairpin, in order to assess the effect of expansion of the nucleating turn. The DPro-LPro segment has been shown to stabilize β-hairpin conformations in both cyclic (Shankaramma,S.C.; Moehle, K. ; James, S.; Vrijbloed, J.W.; Obrecht,D and Robinson, J.A. Chem Commun. 2003,1842-1843) and acyclic sequences ( Raj Kishore Rai ; S.Raghothama and P. Balaram , unpublished results) . In the present study the following turn segments have been considered: βDPro -αLPro , βLPro -αLPro and βLPro -αDPro. The synthesis and conformational analysis of three octapeptide sequences -Boc-Leu-Phe-Val-βDPro-αLPro-Leu-Phe-Val-OMe (βDPαLP8), Boc-Leu-Phe-Val-βLPro-αLPro-Leu-Phe-Val-OMe (βLPαLP8)and Boc-Leu-Phe-Val-βLPro-αDPro-Leu-Phe-Val-OMe (βLPαDP8) are described. In the βDPro-αLPro peptide, NMR evidence clearly supports a β-hairpin conformation, with a nucleating hybrid βα turn stabilized by a C11 (4 →1) hydrogen bond. In the other two octapeptides, no evidence for folded structures was obtained. These results suggest that nucleating turn formation is facilitated only in the heterochiral βD-αL case. Further expansion of the turn segment in potential hairpins has been investigated by inserting two contiguous β-residues into the center of a host α-peptide sequence. The conformational studies on two synthetic hexapeptides, Boc-Leu-Phe-βDPhe-βLPro-Phe-Leu-OMe (βDFβLP6) and Boc-Leu-Phe-βLPhe-βLPro-Phe-Leu-OMe (βLFβLP6) suggest that the βDPhe-βLPro segment is capable of forming a C12 turn in methanol. Two octapeptide sequences, Boc-Leu-Val-Leu-βDPhe-βLPro-Leu-Phe-Val-OMe (βDFβLP8N) and Boc-Leu-Val-Val-βDPhe-βLPro-Leu-Val-Val-OMe (βDFβLP8V) have also been investigated to probe the possible formation of hairpin structures. In these cases, spectroscopic analysis is hampered by the presence of multiple conformations, because of the tendency of the βDPhe-βLPro bond to exist in both cis and trans conformations. NMR studies on the conformational properties of a hexapeptide Boc-Leu-Val-βDPro-βLPro-Leu-Phe-OMe (βDPβLP6) in CDCl3 reveal that in the major conformer the Val 2(NH) ↔ Leu 5 (NH) NOE is observed, suggesting the presence of a 12-membered hydrogen bonded turn. A ββ - segment can give rise to two types of hydrogen bonded rings , 10 – membered (C10) and 12- membered (C12). In an attempt to generate C10 turns, an N-methylamino acid has been inserted next to a ββ - segment, preventing the formation of the 12 – membered turn. In such a situation formation of a 10-membered turn, with reverse hydrogen bond directionality, may be facilitated. The conformational properties of Boc-Leu-Val-βDPhe-βLPro-(N-Me) Leu- Phe-OMe (βDFβLPNMeL6) has been studied by 500 MHz NMR spectroscopy. The data suggests the formation of a C11 turn at the βLPro- (N-Me) Leu segment in CDCl3-DMSO mixtures, instead of formation of a C10 turn at the βDPhe -βLPro segment. Studies on the peptide Boc-Leu-Phe-Val-βLPro-(N-Me) Leu-Leu-Phe-Val-OMe (βLPNMeL8) also suggest the absence of turn formation and folded structures. In hybrid sequences, an important question to be addressed is whether ω amino acids can be accommodated into helical structures. Two contiguous β- residues have been inserted into a helical sequence. The conformational properties of a 11- residue peptide, Boc-Val-Ala-Phe-Aib-βVal-βPhe-Aib-Val-Ala-Phe-Aib-OMe (ABA11) are described in Chapter 5. This sequence was based on the parent α- peptide Boc-Val-Ala-Phe-Aib-Val-Ala-Phe-Aib-Val-Ala-Phe-Aib-OMe, which adopted a complete helical conformation in crystals (Aravinda, S.; Shamala, N.; Das, C .; Sriranjini, A.; Karle, I.L. and Balaram, P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 5308-5315). 500 MHz 1H-NMR studies establish a continuous helix over the entire length of the peptide in CDCl3 solution , as evidenced by diagnostic nuclear Overhauser effects. The molecular conformation in crystals reveals a continuous helical fold, stabilized by seven intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The characterization of two synthetic octapeptides Boc-Val-Ala-βPhe-Aib-Val-Ala-βPhe-Aib-OMe (VAβFU8) (βPhe residues have been incorporated at (i /i+4 positions) and Boc-Val-Ala-βPhe-Aib-βPhe-Ala-Val-Aib-OMe (βFUβF8) (βPhe residues have been incorporated at (i /i+2 positions) is also presented. NMR data suggests the retention of helical conformation in both the peptides. In order to delineate the conformations of hybrid peptides with three contiguous β-residues, two peptides have been synthesized Boc-Phe-Aib-βGly-βLeu-βPhe-Aib-Val-Ala-Phe-Aib-OMe (ABA10) and Boc-Val-Ala-Phe-Aib-βGly-βLeu-βPhe-Aib-Val-Ala-Phe-Aib-OMe (ABA12). NMR studies in chloroform support continuous helical conformation in the decapeptide.
Abstract file URL: http://etd.ncsi.iisc.ernet.in/abstracts/1922/G19945-Abs.pdf
URI: http://etd.iisc.ernet.in/handle/2005/1500
Appears in Collections:Molecular Biophysics Unit (mbu)

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