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Title: Role Of Stacking Fault Energy On Texture Evolution In Micro- And Nano-Crystalline Nickel-Cobalt Alloys
Authors: Radhakrishnan, Madhavan
Advisors: Suwas, Satyam
Keywords: Microcrystalline Nickel-Cobalt Alloys
Nanocrystalline Nickel-Cobalt Alloys
Face Centered Cubic (FCC) Metals and Alloys
Nanocrystalline Nickel Alloys
Microcrystalline Nickel Alloys
Microcrystalline Alloys
Polycrystalline Metals
Stacking Fault Energy Alloys
Crystalline Texture
Nanocrystalline Alloys
Rolling Texture, Metals and Alloys
Deformation Texture
Rolled Polycrystalline Nickel Cobalt Alloys
Submitted Date: Dec-2013
Series/Report no.: G26264
Abstract: Plastic deformation of metals and alloys are invariably accompanied by the development of texture. The origin of texture is attributed to the deformation micro-mechanisms associated with processing. The face-centered cubic (FCC) metals and alloys are known to exhibit two distinct types of textures when subjected to large strain rolling deformation, namely, (i) Cu-type texture, commonly seen in high/medium stacking fault energy (SFE) materials, (ii) Bs-type texture in low SFE materials. The circumstances that could result in the formation of Bs-type texture in low SFE materials still remains an open question and no definite mechanism has been uniquely agreed upon. Apart from the SFE, grain size could also influence the deformation mechanism and hence the deformation texture. It is well known that in materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm (referred to as nano-crystalline materials), the microstructures contain large fraction of grain boundaries. This subsequently introduces a variety of deformation mechanisms in the microstructure involving grain boundary-mediated processes such as grain boundary sliding and grain rotation, in addition to slip and twinning. A clear understanding of texture evolution in nano-crystalline materials, particularly at large strains, is a topic that remains largely unexplored. The present work is an attempt to address the aforementioned issues pertaining to the evolution of deformation texture, namely, (i) the effect of SFE and (ii) the effect of grain size, in FCC metals and alloys. Nickel-cobalt alloys are chosen as the model system for the present investigation. The addition of cobalt to nickel leads to a systematic reduction of SFE as a function of cobalt content. In this thesis, three alloys of Ni-Co system have been considered, namely, nickel – 20 wt.% cobalt, nickel – 40 wt.% cobalt and nickel – 60 wt.% cobalt. For a comparison, pure nickel has also been subjected to similar study. Chapter 1 of the thesis presents a detailed survey of literature pertaining to the evolution of rolling textures in FCC metals and alloys, and chapter 2 includes the details of the experimental techniques and characterization procedures, which are commonly employed for the entire work. Chapter 3 addresses the effect of stacking fault energy on the evolution of rolling texture. The materials subjected to study in this chapter are microcrystalline Ni-Co alloys. The texture evolution in Ni-20Co is very similar to pure Ni, and a characteristic Cu-type rolling texture is observed. The evolution of texture in these materials is primarily attributed to the intense dislocation activity throughout the deformation stages. In Ni-40Co, a medium SFE material, the rolling texture was predominantly Cu-type up to a strain of ε = 3 (95% thickness reduction). However, beyond this strain level, namely at ε = 4 (98%), the texture gets transformed to Bs-type with orientations maxima predominantly close to Goss ({110} <001>) position. Simultaneously, the Cu component which was dominant until 95% reduction has completely disappeared. The analysis of microstructures indicate that deformation is mostly accommodated by dislocation slip up to 95%, however, at ε > 3, Cu-type shear bands get initiated, preferably in the Cu-oriented ({112} <111>) grains. The sub-grains within the shear bands show preferred orientation towards Goss, which indicates that the Cu component should have undergone transformation and resulted in high fraction of Goss component. In Ni-60Co alloy, Bs-type texture forms in the early stages of deformation (ε ~ 0.5) itself and further deformation results in strengthening of the texture with an important difference that the maximum in orientation distribution has been observed at a location close to Goss component, rather than at exact Bs-location. The development of Bs-type texture is accompanied by the complete absence of Cu and S components. Extensive EBSD analyses show that the deformation twinning gets initiated beyond 10% reduction and was found extensively in most of the grains up to 50% reduction. At higher strains, tendency for twinning ceases and extensive shear banding is observed. A non-random distribution of orientations close to Goss orientation was found within the shear bands. The near-Goss component in the Ni-60Co alloy can be explained on the basis of deformation twinning and shear banding. Thus, a reasonable understanding of the deformation texture transition in the extreme SFE range has been developed. In chapter 4, the effect of fine grain size on the evolution of rolling texture has been addressed. Nanocrystalline (nc) nickel-cobalt alloys with a mean grain size of ~20 nm have been prepared by pulse electro-deposition method. For a comparison, nc Nickel (without cobalt) with similar grain size has also been deposited. For all the materials, a weakening of the initial fiber texture is observed in the early stage of room temperature rolling (ε ~ 0.22). A combination of equiaxed grain microstructure and texture weakening suggests grain boundary sliding as an operative mechanism in the early stage of rolling. At large strain (ε = 1.2), Ni-20Co develops a Cu-type texture with high fractions of S and Cu components, similar to pure Ni. The texture evolution in Ni-40Co and Ni-60Co alloys is more towards Bs-type. However, the texture maximum occurs at a location 10° away from the Goss. The evolution of Cu and S components in nc Ni-60Co alloy takes place simultaneously along with the α-fiber components during rolling. Microstructural investigation by TEM indicates deformation twinning to be more active in all the materials up to 40% reduction. However, no correlation could be drawn between the texture evolution and the density of twins. The deformation of nc Ni-20Co alloy, is also accompanied by significant grain growth at all the stages of rolling. The increase in grain size, subsequently, renders the texture to be of Cu-type. However, Ni-40Co and Ni-60Co alloys show high grain stability. The absence of strain heterogeneities such as shear bands, and the lack of significant fraction of deformation twins indicate that the observed Bs-type texture could be due to planar slip. The increase in deformation beyond 70% reduction caused a modest reduction in the intensity of deformation texture. The microstructural observation indicates the occurrence of restoration mechanisms such as recovery/ recrystallization at large strains. The overall findings of the investigation have been summarized in chapter 5. The deformation mechanism maps relating stacking fault energy with amount of strain and with grain size are proposed for micro- and nano- crystalline materials respectively.
Abstract file URL: http://etd.ncsi.iisc.ernet.in/abstracts/3400/G26264-Abs.pdf
URI: http://etd.iisc.ernet.in/handle/2005/2623
Appears in Collections:Materials Engineering (formely known as Metallurgy) (materials)

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