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Title:  Study On Overmodulation Methods For PWM Inverter Fed AC Drives 
Authors:  Venugopal, S 
Advisors:  Narayanan, G Ramanarayanan, V 
Keywords:  Inverters Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) AC Drives Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) Sine Triangle Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) Current Ripple Estimation Overmodulation Triangle Comparison Based PWM (TCPWM) Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) 
Submitted Date:  May2006 
Publisher:  Indian Institute of Science 
Abstract:  A voltage source inverter is commonly used to supply a variable frequency variable voltage to a three phase induction motor in a variable speed application. A suitable pulse width modulation (PWM) technique is employed to obtain the required output voltage in the line side of the inverter. Realtime methods for PWM generation can be broadly classified into triangle comparison based PWM (TCPWM) and space vector based PWM (SVPWM).
In TCPWM methods such as sinetriangle PWM, three phase reference modulating signals are compared against a common triangular carrier to generate the PWM signals for the three phases.
In SVPWM methods, a revolving reference voltage vector is provided as voltage reference instead of three phase modulating waves. The magnitude and frequency of the fundamental component in the line side are controlled by the magnitude and frequency, respectively, of the reference vector.
The fundamental line side voltage is proportional to the reference magnitude during linear modulation. With sinetriangle PWM, the highest possible peak phase fundamental voltage is 0.5Vdc, where Vdc is the DC bus voltage, in the linear modulation zone. With techniques such as third harmonic injection PWM and space vector based PWM, the peak phase fundamental voltage can be as high as (formula) (i.e., 0:577Vdc)during linear modulation. To increase the line side voltage further, the operation of the VSI must be extended into the overmodulation region. The overmodulation region extends upto the sixstep mode, which gives the highest possible ac voltage for a given (formula).
In TCPWM based methods, increasing the reference magnitude beyond a certain level leads to pulse dropping, and gradually leads to sixstep operation. However, in SVPWM methods, an overmodulation algorithm is required for controlling the lineside voltage during overmodulation and to achieve a smooth transition from PWM to sixstep mode.
Numerous overmodulation algorithms have been proposed in the literature for space vector modulated inverter. A well known algorithm among these divides the overmodulation zone into two zones, namely zoneI and zoneII. This is termed as the 'existing overmodulation algorithm' here. This algorithm is modified in the present work to reduce computational burden without much increase in the line current distortion.
During overmodulation, the fundamental line side voltage and the reference magnitude are not proportional, which is undesirable from the control point of view. The present work ensures a linear relationship between the two.
Apart from the fundamental component, the inverter output voltage mainly consists of harmonic components at high frequencies (around switching frequency and the integral multiples) during linear modulation. However, during overmodulation, low order harmonic components such as 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th etc., are also present in the output voltage. These low order harmonic voltages lead to low order harmonic currents in the motor. The sum of the lower order harmonic currents is termed as 'lower order current ripple'. The present thesis proposes a method for estimation of lower order current ripple in realtime.
In closed loop current control, the motor current is fed back to the current controller. During overmodulation, the motor current contains low order harmonics, which appear in the current error fed to the controller. These harmonic currents are amplified by the current error amplifier deteriorating the performance of the drive.
It is possible to filter the lower order harmonic currents before being fed back. However, filtering introduces delay in the current loop, and reduces the bandwidth even during linear modulation. In the present work, the estimated lower order current ripple is subtracted from the measured current before the latter is fed back to the controller.
The estimation of lower order current ripple and the proposed current control are verified through simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK and also experimentally on a laboratory prototype. The experimental setup comprises of a field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) based digital controller, an IGBT based inverter and a fourpole squirrel cage induction motor.
(Pl refer the original document for formula) 
URI:  http://etd.iisc.ernet.in/handle/2005/278 
Appears in Collections:  Electrical Engineering (ee)

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