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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2800

Title: Flow and Windage Heating in Labyrinth Seals
Authors: Nayak, Kali Charan
Advisors: Dutta, Pradip
Lakshminarasimhan, Krishna
Keywords: Labyrinth Seals
Windage Heating
Turbo Machines
Brush Seals
Turbulence Models
Labyrinth Seal Leakage Models
Wintage Heating Models
Labyrinth Seal Configurations
Honeycomb Cell
Honeycomb Labyrinth Seal
Submitted Date: 2014
Series/Report no.: G26268
Abstract: The ability to quantify leakage flow and windage heating for labyrinth seals with honeycomb lands is critical in understanding gas turbine engine system performance and predicting its component lifes. Variety of labyrinth seal configurations (number of teeth, stepped or straight, honeycomb cell size) are in use in gas turbines, and for each configuration, there are many additional geometric factors that can impact a seal’s leakage and windage characteristics. To achieve high performance in modern gas turbine engines, the labyrinth seals operate at low clearances and high rotational speed which are generally deployed with honeycomb lands on the stator. During the transient operation of aircraft engines, the stator and rotor mechanical and thermal growths differ from one another and can often result in the rotor’s incursion into the stator honeycomb structure. The incursions create rub-grooves in the honeycomb lands that can subsequently enlarge as the engine undergoes various manoeuvres. However, the effects of different honeycomb cell size, rotation and presence of rub-groove have not been thoroughly investigated in previously published work. The objective of the present research is to numerically investigate the influence of the above three factors on seal leakage and windage heating. The present work focuses the development of a numerical methodology aimed at studying above effects. Specifically, a three-dimensional CFD model is developed utilizing commercial finite volume-based software incorporating the RNG k-ε turbulence model. Detail validation of the numerical model is performed by comparing the leakage and windage heating measurements of several rig tests. The turbulent Schmidt number is found to be an important parameter governing the leakage prediction. It depends on honeycomb cell size and clearance for honeycomb seals, and Reynolds number in the presence smooth lands. The present numerical model with the modified RNG k- turbulence model predicts seal leakage and windage heating within 3-10% with available experimental data. Using the validated numerical model, a broad parametric study is conducted by varying honeycomb cell size, radial clearance, pressure ratio and rotational speed for a four-tooth straight-through labyrinth seal with and without rub-grooves. They further indicate that presence of rub-grooves increases seal leakage and reduce windage heating, specifically at smaller clearance and for larger honeycomb cell size. Rotation significantly reduces leakage with smooth stator land and smaller honeycomb cells whereas the effect is minimal for larger (3.2mm) honeycomb cells. However, at very high rotational speed seal flow reduces in all seal configurations due to high temperature rise and Rayleigh line effects. At no rub condition and lower clearance, the larger honeycomb cells leak more flow due to high bypass flow through the honeycomb cells. This results into lower pocket swirl and higher windage. When the seal clearance increases the larger honeycomb cells offers more drag to the seal flow, therefore they leak less. At higher clearances the flow travels like a strong wall jet and isolates the pocket air from honeycomb cells. Hence, at open clearances labyrinth seals with any honeycomb cell size essentially produce the same pocket swirl and windage heating.
Abstract file URL: http://etd.ncsi.iisc.ernet.in/abstracts/3665/G26268-Abs.pdf
URI: http://etd.iisc.ernet.in/handle/2005/2800
Appears in Collections:Mechanical Engineering (mecheng)

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