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Title: Structure-Function Correlative Studies On The Biochemical Properties (Polymerisation, GTP binding, GTPase) Of Mycobacterial Cytokinetic Protein FtsZ In Vitro
Authors: Gupta, Prabuddha
Advisors: Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi
Keywords: Protein
GTP Binding
GT Pase
FtsZ Protein - Biochemical Properties
Mycobacterium Leprae FtsZ
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis FtsZ
FtsZ-Mycobacterial Cytokinetic Protein
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Cytokinetic Protein FtsZ
Submitted Date: Feb-2009
Series/Report no.: G22921
Abstract: FtsZ, the principal cell-division protein, polymerizes in GTP-dependent manner in vitro (Bramhill and Thompson, 1994; Mukherjee and Lutkenhaus, 1994; Rivas et al., 2000). FtsZ polymerization at the mid-cell site of bacterium leads to formation of a guiding scaffold, the Z-ring, for bacterial cytokinesis (Bi and Lutkenhaus, 1991; Sun and Margolin, 1998). GTP-induced polymerization process of FtsZ can be monitored in vitro Using 90º light scattering (Mukherjee and Lutkenhaus, 1999) and polymers formed can be visualized using transmission electron microscopy (Lu and Erickson, 1998) or quntitated in terms of the amount of FtsZ polymer pelleted during ultracentrifugation (Mukherjee and Lutkenhaus, 1998). The research work presented in this thesis focused on structure-function correlative analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis FtsZ(MtFtsZ0 and FtsZ proteins of Mycobacterium leprae (M1FtsZ), Mycobacterium smegmatis(MsFtsZ), and Streptomyces coelicolor (ScFtsZ) (as it is from Actinomycetes family to which mycobacteria belong) in vitro. It was initiated with investigation on the biochemical properties of Mycobacterium leprae FtsZ (M1FtsZ) in vitro. In comparison with those of MtFtsZ. Subsequently, the role of C-terminal stretch of amino acid residues of MtFtsZ in polymerization was investigated. Finally, a comparative analysis of the biochemical properties of MtFtsZ, MsFtsZ, and ScFtsZ was carried out in order to find out whether a correlation exists between the time taken by the FtsZ of a bacterium to polymerise and the generation time of the organism. The thesis is presented in five chapters. First Chapter gives an exhaustive introduction on the structure-function aspects of FtsZ. Second Chapter deals with materials used in this research work and details of various experimental methods [cloning and expression of FtsZ (White et. Al., 2000), decision and point mutagenesis, preparation of His-tag free MtFtsZ and M1FtsZ by thrombin cleavage method, 90º light scattering (Mukherjee and Lutkenhaus, 1999), White, et al., 2000), transmission electron microscopy (Lu and Erickson, 1998), pelleting assay for polymeric FtsZ (Mukherjee and Lutkenhaus, 1998), GTP-binding by UV-crosslinking (RayChaudhuri and Park, 1992; de Boer et al.,) GTPase assay(RayChaudhuri and Park, 1992); de Boer et al., 1992), Circular Dichroism (Saxena and Wetlaufer, 1971) and ANS fluorescence emission spectroscopy (Semisotnov, et al., 1991)]. The Chapters three to five contain all the data related to the research work, the outlines of which are given below. Chapter 3. Biochemical Characterisation of FtsZ Protein of Mycobacterium leprae In Comparison with the Biochemical Properties of FtsZ Protein of Mycobacteriulm tulberculosis In Vitro The major finding in this part of thesis work is on the demonstration that single reciprocal point mutation partially revives polymerization-inactive M1FtsZ and Inactivates polymerization-active MtFtsZ in vitro. In brief, soluble, recombinant M1FtsZ did not show detectable polymerization in vitro, in contrast to MtFtsZ, which showed appreciable polymerization, under standard conditions, when monitored using 90º light scattering assay and transmission electron microscopy. This was a surprising result, as M1FtsZ and MtFtsZ has 96% protein sequence identity. Mutation f T172 in the N-terminal domain of M1FtsZ to A172, as it exists in MtFtsZ, showed dramatic levels of polymerization in vitro. Reciprocal mutation of A172 in MtFtsZ to T172, as it exists in M1FtsZ, abolished polymerization in vitro. Further, M1FtsZ showed weak GTPase activity, in contrast to MtFtsZ, which showed appreciable GTPase activity. While T172A mutation enhanced GTPase activity of MtFtsZ in vitro. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and ANS fluorescence emission spectroscopy showed that there were no major secondary or tertiary structural changes in these point mutants. These observations demonstrate that the residue at position 172 plays a critical role in the polymerization of M1FtsZ and MtFtsZ, without appreciably affecting their respective GTpPase activity. Further, this result might have implications on evolution of a slow polymerizing FtsZ in slow growing bacteria. Further details of evolution related questions are addressed in Chapter 5. Chapter 4. Role of Carboxy Terminal Residues in the Biochemical Properties of FtsZ Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Vitro The major finding in this part of thesis work is the demonstration that the C-terminal end residues are critically required for polymerization of MtFtsZ in vitro, which is in direct contrast to the dispensability of C-terminal residues of Escherichia coli FtsZ(EcFtsZ), Bacillus subtilis FtsZ (BsFtsZ), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaFtsZ) for polymerization. FtsZ protein from several bacterial species namely, Methanococcus jannaschii (MjFtsZ), Bacillus subtillis(BsFtsZ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaFtsZ), and Aquifex aeolicus (AaFtsZ) (Lowe and Amos, 1998; Oliva et al., 2007), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (mtFtsZl Leung et al., 2004), whose crystal structures have been solved so far, were found to possess an N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain that were connected to each other through a helix. The extreme C-terminal portion of all these FtsZ proteins is constituted by an unstructured tail (Lowe and Amos, 1998; Oliva et al., 2007l Leung et al., 2004), which is not found in the respective crystal structure of the protein. We examined whether C-terminal residues of soluble recombinant FtsZ of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtFtsZ) have any role in MtFtsZ polymerization in vitro. Deletion of C-terminal 66 residues (313-379) was found to abolish polymerization. Replacement of the C-terminal 66 residues with the extreme C-terminal 13-residue stretch (DDDDVDVPPFMRR) did not restore polymerization. Although the terminal R in DDDDVDVPPFMRR is dispensable for full-length MtFtsZ polymerization, the terminal R in DDDDVDVPPFMR is indispensable for polymerization. Neither replacement of this R, in the terminal R deletion mutant DDDDVDVPPFMR, with K/H/D/A residues enabled polymerization. GTP binding and GTPase activities of the mutants were partially affected. The indispensable nature of C-terminal residues for MtFtsZ polymerization in vitro is contrary to the dispensability of the equivalent extreme C-terminal residues of Escherichi coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus subtilis FtsZ (Wang et. Al., 1997; Cordell et al., 2003; Singh et al., 2007) for in vitro polymerization. The essentiality of C-terminal extreme residues of BtFtsZ for polymerization offers direction to design anti MtFtsZ polymerization agents. Chapter 5. An attempt to find correlation between Biochemical properties of FtsZ and Generation Time of the Bacterium The clue that there might be a correlation between FtsZ polymeristion and generation time of the bacterium came from the observation mentioned in chapter 3. The presence of polymerization-aversive T172 in the FtsZ of extremely slow-growing M. leprae 913.5 days generation time, Levy, 1970) and polymerization-favouring A172 in the FtsZ of M. tuberculosis(18hrs generation time, Patterson and Youmans, 1970). For a bacterium, which has short generation time, it might be conducive to have an FtsZ that will also polymerise fast. Conversely, for a bacterium, which has long generation, it might be conducive to have an FtsZ molecule that will polymerise slow. In this respect, a preliminary comparative study was carried out between the generation time of bacterial species, E. coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Streptomyces coelicolor, M leprae, and M. tuhberculosis and their respective FtsZ (EcFtsZ, MsFtsZ, M1FtsZ and MtFtsZ). Detailed biochemical characterization of EcFtsZ and MtFtsZ has already been reported in the literature. In this thesis work, biochemical characterisation of M1FtsZ(Chapter 3), ScFtsZ and MsFtsZ (in this Chapter) were carried out. E. coli, which has a generation time of 18-55 min(labrum, 1953), possesses FtsZ (EcFtsZ) that reaches steady state of polymerization in about 10 sec under standard conditions in vitro (Beamhill and Thompson, 1994), using 90º light scattering assay (Mukherjee and Lukenhaus, 1999). On the other hand, M. tuberculosis, which has a generation time of 18hrs in vivo (Patterson and Youmans, 1970) and 24 hrs in vitro (Hiriyanna and Ramakrishnan, 1986) possesses FtsZ (MtFtsZ) that reaches steady state of polymerization in about 6 min post-addiction of GTP in vitro (White et al., 2000). Further, M. leprae, which takes 13.5 days tp divide once in vivo (levy, 1970), possesses an FtsZ (M1FtsZ) that does not even show polymerization under standard conditions in vitro (Chapter 3 of this thesis). The organisms Mycobacterium smegmatis and Streptomyces coelicolor have generation times that fall in between those of the other three organisms mentioned above. While M. smegmatis divides once in 2-3 hrs (Husson, 1998), S. coelicolor has a variable generation time depending on growth condition, which can be as fast as once in 2.31 hours, depending upon growth conditions (Cox, 2004). We found ScFtsZ and MsFtsZ takes around 4 min to reach polymerization saturation after addition of GTP, EcFtsZ( 10 sec), MtFtsZ (10 min) and M1FtsZ (dose not polymerise in vitro) seem to indicate that there exists a correlation between polymerization saturation after addition of GTP, EcFtsZ (10sec), MtFtsZ (10 min) and M1FtsZ (does not polymerise in vitro) seem to indicate that there exists a correlation between polymerization saturation time and the generation time of the respective bacterium. But when we compared polymerization time of ScFtsZ and MsFtsZ (4 min both case) with MtFtsZ ( 6 min), we found that there is no linear correlation with generation time of these bacteria and the time taken by their FtsZ to reach steady state of polymerization. Many more bacterial FtsZ proteins need to be characterized to conclusively state wthether there exist a correlation between generation time of bacteria and the time taken for their FtsZ to reach steady state of polymeristion. Such correlation would simply reveal the fact that the primary structure of an FtsZ protein might have evolved to suit the generation time of the bacterium.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2005/661
Appears in Collections:Microbiology and Cell Biology (mcbl)

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