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Title:  Reduced Order Modeling Of Stochastic Dynamic Systems 
Authors:  Hegde, Manjunath Narayan 
Advisors:  Raghuprasad, B K 
Keywords:  Stochastic Systems Dynamical Systems Structural Dynamic Systems Finite Element Dynamic Models Stochastic Model Reduction Stochastic Dynamics Stochastic Dynamic Systems 
Submitted Date:  Sep2008 
Series/Report no.:  G22891 
Abstract:  Uncertainties in both loading and structural characteristics can adversely affect the response and reliability of a structure. Parameter uncertainties in structural dynamics can arise due to several sources. These include variations due to intrinsic material property variability, measurement errors, manufacturing and assembly errors, differences in modeling and solution procedures. Problems of structural dynamics with randomly distributed spatial inhomogeneities in elastic, mass, and damping properties, have been receiving wide attention. Several mathematical and computational issues include discretization of random fields, characterization of random eigensolutions, inversion of random matrices, solutions of stochastic boundaryvalue problems, and description of random matrix products. Difficulties are encountered when one has to include interaction between nonlinear and stochastic system characteristics, or if one is interested in controlling the system response. The study of structural systems including the effects of system nonlinearity in the presence of parameter uncertainties presents serious challenges and difficulties to designers and reliability engineers.
In the analysis of large structures, the situation for substructuring frequently arises due to the repetition of identical assemblages (substructures), within a structure, and the general need to reduce the size of the problem, particularly in the case of nonlinear inelastic dynamic analysis. A small reduction in the model size can have a large effect on the storage and time requirement. A primary structural dynamic system may be coupled to subsystems such as piping systems in a nuclear reactor or in a chemical plant. Usually subsystem in itself is quite complex and its modeling with finite elements may result in a large number of degrees of freedom. The reduced subsystem model should be of loworder yet capturing the essential dynamics of the subsystem for useful integration with the primary structure. There are two major issues to be studied: one, techniques for analyzing a complex structure into component subsystems, analyzing the individual subsystem dynamics, and from thereon determining the dynamics of the structure after assembling the subsystems. The nonlinearity due to support gap effects such as supports for piping system in nuclear reactors further complicates the problem. The second is the issue of reviewing the methods for reducing the modelorder of the component subsystems such that the order of the global dynamics, after assembly, is within some predefined limits.
In the reliability analysis of complex engineering structures, a very large number of the system parameters have to be considered as random variables. The parameter uncertainties are modeled as random variables and are assumed to be time independent. Here the problem would be to reduce the number of random variables without sacrificing the accuracy of the reliability analysis. The procedure involves the reduction of the size of the vector of random variables before the calculation of failure probability.
The objectives of this thesis are:
1.To use the available model reduction techniques in order to effectively reduce the size of the finite element model, and hence, compare the dynamic responses from such models.
2.Study of propagation of uncertainties in the reduced order/coupled stochastic finite element dynamic models.
3.Addressing the localized nonlinearities due to support gap effects in the built up structures, and also in cases of sudden change in soil behaviour under the footings. The irregularity in soil behaviour due to lateral escape of soil due to failure of quay walls/retaining walls/excavation in neighbouring site, etc.
4.To evolve a procedure for the reduction of size of the vector containing the random variables before the calculation of failure probability. In the reliability analysis of complex engineering structures, a very large number of the system parameters are considered to be random variables. Here the problem would be to reduce the number of random variables without sacrificing the accuracy of the reliability analysis.
5.To analyze the reduced nonlinear stochastic dynamic system (with phase space reduction), and effectively using the network pruning technique for the solution, and also to use filter theory (wavelet theory) for reducing the input earthquake record to save computational time and cost.
It is believed that the techniques described provide highly useful insights into the manner structural uncertainties propagate. The crosssectional area, length, modulus of elasticity and mass density of the structural components are assumed as random variables. Since both the random and design variables are expressed in a discretized parameter space, the stochastic sensitivity function can be modeled in a parallel way. The response of the structures in frequency domain is considered.
This thesis is organized into seven chapters.
This thesis deals with the reduced order models of the stochastic structural systems under deterministic/random loads.
The Chapter 1 consists of a brief introduction to the field of study.
In Chapter 2, an extensive literature survey based on the previous works on model order reduction and the response variability of the structural dynamic systems is presented. The discussion on parameter uncertainties, stochastic finite element method, and reliability analysis of structures is covered. The importance of reducing mechanical models for dynamic response variability, the systems with highdimensional variables and reduction in random variables space, nonlinearity issues are discussed.
The next few chapters from Chapter 3 to Chapter 6 are the main contributions in this thesis, on model reduction under various situations for both linear and nonlinear systems. After forming a framework for model reduction, local nonlinearities like support gaps in structural elements are considered. Next, the effect of reduction in number of random variables is tackled. Finally influence of network pruning and decomposition of input signals into low and high frequency parts are investigated. The details are as under.
In Chapter 3, the issue of finite element model reduction is looked into. The generalized finite element analysis of the full model of a randomly parametered structure is carried out under a harmonic input. Different well accepted finite element model reduction techniques are used for FE model reduction in the stochastic dynamic system. The structural parameters like, mass density and modulus of elasticity of the structural elements are considered to be nonGaussian random variables. Since the variables considered here are strictly positive, the probabilistic distribution of the random variables is assumed to be lognormal. The sensitivities in the eigen solutions are compared. The response statistics based on response of models in frequency domain are compared. The dynamic responses of the full FE model, separated into real and imaginary parts, are statistically compared with those from reduced FE models. Monte Carlo simulation is done to validate the analysis results from SFEM.
In Chapter 4, the problem of coupling of substructures in a large and complex structure, and FE model reduction, e.g., component mode synthesis (CMS) is studied in the stochastic environment. Here again, the statistics of the response from full model and reduced models are compared. The issues of nonproportional damping, support gap effects and/local nonlinearity are considered in the stochastic sense. Monte Carlo simulation is done to validate the analysis results from SFEM.
In Chapter 5, the reduction in size of the vector of random variables in the reliability analysis is attempted. Here, the relative entropy/ KL divergence/mutual information, between the random variables is considered as a measure for ranking of random variables to study the influence of each random variable on the response/reliability of the structure. The probabilistic distribution of the random variables is considered to be lognormal. The reliability analysis is carried out with the well known Bucher and Bourgund algorithm (1990), along with the probabilistic model reduction of the stochastic structural dynamic systems, within the framework of response surface method. The reduction in number of random variables reduces the computational effort required to construct an approximate closed form expression in response surface approach.
In Chapter 6, issues regarding the nonlinearity effects in the reduced stochastic structural dynamic systems (with phase space reduction), along with network pruning are attempted. The network pruning is also adopted for reduction in computational effort. The earthquake accelerogram is decomposed using Fast Mallat Algorithm (Wavelet theory) into smaller number of points and the dynamic analysis of structures is carried out against these reduced points, effectively reducing the computational time and cost.
Chapter 7 outlines the contributions made in this thesis, together with a few suggestions made for further research.
All the finite element codes were developed using MATLAB5.3.
Final pages of the thesis contain the references made in the preparation of this thesis. 
URI:  http://etd.iisc.ernet.in/handle/2005/788 
Appears in Collections:  Civil Engineering (civil)

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