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Title: Measurements And Modelling Of Internal Waves In The Northeastern Arabian Sea
Authors: Kumar, G V Krishna
Advisors: Vinaychandran, P N
Keywords: Waves (Oceans) - Models
North Eastern Arabian Sea
Garrett-Munk Model
Internal Wave Model (IWAVE)
Internal Waves - Modelling
Internal Waves (IWs)
Submitted Date: Jan-2008
Series/Report no.: G22443
Abstract: Internal waves (IWs) owe their existence to the stratification in the medium. These waves affect acoustic transmission greatly. Impact of these waves on acoustic transmission in deep water is fairly well understood due to better performance of well-celebrated Garrett-Munk (GM) model. However, in shallow waters, predicting these waves is not as easy, because of interactions with the bottom and surface. Hence two experiments, one during October 2002 and the other during October 2004 were conducted to characterize IWs in the shallow waters of northeastern Arabian Sea. The first experiment was carried out during October 2002 south of Gulf of Kutch (GOK) and the second experiment during October 2004 both south and north of GOK. During these experiments CTD moorings were deployed and temperature and salinity (TS) data were collected at 5 seconds interval. CTD Yo-Yo collected vertical profiles of TS at a sampling interval of 2.5 minutes for 3.5 hours during October 2002 and 1 hour during October 2004 experiment. In addition, during the first experiment, currents were measured using a vessel mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), and in both experiments CTD TS profiles were taken from the ship. This data set has been used for characterizing internal waves in the northeastern Arabian Sea. Experiment conducted during October 2002, south of GOK has revealed large tidal ranges. The barotropic tidal range at the experimental site was 1.5m. Current observations made using the vessel mounted ADCP, along the shore and across the shore, showed signs of first mode (baroclinic) oscillations; currents in the top and bottom layers were in opposing directions. They were found to be southwesterly in the top layer and northeasterly in the bottom layer. Time - depth sections of TS profiles from CTD yo-yo data, revealed the presence of high frequency internal waves and solitons overriding on low frequency trend. Moored CTD time series of temperature records showed the presence of internal solitons, which caused a vertical displacement of about 8m in the isotherms, which is equivalent to 3OC change in temperature, in less than 10 minutes. Passage of internal solitons induced vertical mixing causing the mixed layer to deepen by about 10m and current speed increased by about 0.1 m/s. Internal solitons were traveling towards northwest and current vectors suggest that they were generated when the internal tide is reflected from the bottom. Vertical displacement spectra agreed well with GM spectra when solitons were not present. However, when the solitons were present the displacement spectra had higher energy levels compared to the GM spectra. Another experiment was done in October 2004, mainly aimed at characterizing internal solitons and to verify the consistency of the results obtained during October 2002 experiment. This experiment also showed that IWs of both high and low frequency along with internal solitons were present at the experimental site. It was found that internal solitons were more energetic during spring tide than the neap. The observed amplitudes of these solitons were around 12m and were not rank ordered suggesting that the experimental site is close to the generation point. It is believed that, generally, solitons get phase locked to the barotropic tide’s trough and travel. Such phase locking was not observed at the experimental site. They were observed riding on both troughs and crests of barotropic tide. One of the aims of this thesis is to develop a simulation model based on Garrett-Munk steady state internal wave spectrum. Hence, an internal wave model IWAVE was developed to simulate the sound speed structure due to internal waves. Sound speed structure is simulated instead of TS structure, because of their direct utility in sonar range prediction models. Since the GM model is a deep-water and mid-latitude model, it was calibrated to suite shallow-water tropical environment by incorporating the site and region specific parameters. EOFs and Dynamical modes estimated using TS profiles were used to identify the site-specific parameters of the GM model. Values for characteristic mode number and spectral slope used in the GM model are 3 and 2 respectively. However, it was found that they are different in the northeastern Arabian Sea. At this site, the characteristic mode number was found to be 1 and the spectral slope was found to be 3. The modified model was validated against the measured sound speed profiles. In the first case, the first sound speed profile (TS) of the CTD yo-yo data (20 October 2002) was used for predicting the remaining profiles and compared them with observations. This was done to verify the model’s ability to predict high frequency case (TS profiles are measured at every 2.5min.). In the second case, during October 2004, TS profiles collected at every one-hour for 24 hours were used. This gives an idea of the model’s performance for the low frequency case. The variances of the measured and simulated sound speed profiles matched well in both cases with the modified GM model.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2005/849
Appears in Collections:Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences (caos)

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