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Title: Impact Assessment Of Climate Change On Hydrometeorology Of River Basin For IPCC SRES Scenarios
Authors: Anandhi, Aavudai
Advisors: Srinivas, V V
Keywords: Hydrometeorology - India
Climatic Changes - India
Hydrological Modeling
Climate Variables - Downscaling
General Climate Models
Atmospheric General Circulation Models
Oceanic General Circulation Models
Hydrometeorological Variables
Support Vector Machine Downscaling
Climate Models - Disaggregation
Global Circulation Models (GCMs)
Downscaling Climate
Submitted Date: Dec-2007
Series/Report no.: G22200
Abstract: There is ample growth in scientific evidence about climate change. Since, hydrometeorological processes are sensitive to climate variability and changes, ascertaining the linkages and feedbacks between the climate and the hydrometeorological processes becomes critical for environmental quality, economic development, social well-being etc. As the river basin integrates some of the important systems like ecological and socio-economic systems, the knowledge of plausible implications of climate change on hydrometeorology of a river basin will not only increase the awareness of how the hydrological systems may change over the coming century, but also prepare us for adapting to the impacts of climate changes on water resources for sustainable management and development. In general, quantitative climate impact studies are based on several meteorological variables and possible future climate scenarios. Among the meteorological variables, sic “cardinal” variables are identified as the most commonly used in impact studies (IPCC, 2001). These are maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation, solar radiation, relative humidity and wind speed. The climate scenarios refer to plausible future climates, which have been constructed for explicit use for investigating the potential consequences of anthropogenic climate alterations, in addition to the natural climate variability. Among the climate scenarios adapted in impact assessments, General circulation model(GCM) projections based on marker scenarios given in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC’s) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios(SRES) have become the standard scenarios. The GCMs are run at coarse resolutions and therefore the output climate variables for the various scenarios of these models cannot be used directly for impact assessment on a local(river basin)scale. Hence in the past, several methodologies such as downscaling and disaggregation have been developed to transfer information of atmospheric variables from the GCM scale to that of surface meteorological variables at local scale. The most commonly used downscaling approaches are based on transfer functions to represent the statistical relationships between the large scale atmospheric variables(predictors) and the local surface variables(predictands). Recently Support vector machine (SVM) is proposed, and is theoretically proved to have advantages over other techniques in use such as transfer functions. The SVM implements the structural risk minimization principle, which guarantees the global optimum solution. Further, for SVMs, the learning algorithm automatically decides the model architecture. These advantages make SVM a plausible choice for use in downscaling hydrometeorological variables. The literature review on use of transfer function for downscaling revealed that though a diverse range of transfer functions has been adopted for downscaling, only a few studies have evaluated the sensitivity of such downscaling models. Further, no studies have so far been carried out in India for downscaling hydrometeorological variables to a river basin scale, nor there was any prior work aimed at downscaling CGCM3 simulations to these variables at river basin scale for various IPCC SRES emission scenarios. The research presented in the thesis is motivated to assess the impact of climate change on streamflow at river basin scale for the various IPCC SRES scenarios (A1B, A2, B1 and COMMIT), by integrating implications of climate change on all the six cardinal variables. The catchment of Malaprabha river (upstream of Malaprabha reservoir) in India is chosen as the study area to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed models, as it is considered to be a climatically sensitive region, because though the river originates in a region having high rainfall it feeds arid and semi-arid regions downstream. The data of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the third generation Canadian Global Climate Model (CGCM3) of the Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis (CCCma), observed hydrometeorological variables, Digital Elevation model (DEM), land use/land cover map, and soil map prepared based on PAN and LISS III merged, satellite images are considered for use in the developed models. The thesis is broadly divided into four parts. The first part comprises of general introduction, data, techniques and tools used. The second part describes the process of assessment of the implications of climate change on monthly values of each of the six cardinal variables in the study region using SVM downscaling models and k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) disaggregation technique. Further, the sensitivity of the SVM downscaling models to the choice of predictors, predictand, calibration period, season and location is evaluated. The third part describes the impact assessment of climate change on streamflow in the study region using the SWAT hydrologic model, and SVM downscaling models. The fourth part presents summary of the work presented in the thesis, conclusions draws, and the scope for future research. The development of SVM downscaling model begins with the selection of probable predictors (large scale atmospheric variables). For this purpose, the cross-correlations are computed between the probable predictor variables in NCEP and GCM data sets, and the probable predictor variables in NCEP data set and the predictand. A pool of potential predictors is then stratified (which is optional and variable dependant) based on season and or location by specifying threshold values for the computed cross-correlations. The data on potential predictors are first standardized for a baseline period to reduce systemic bias (if any) in the mean and variance of predictors in GCM data, relative to those of the same in NCEP reanalysis data. The standardized NCEP predictor variables are then processed using principal component analysis (PCA) to extract principal components (PCs) which are orthogonal and which preserve more than 98% of the variance originally present in them. A feature vector is formed for each month using the PCs. The feature vector forms the input to the SVM model, and the contemporaneous value of predictand is its output. Finally, the downscaling model is calibrated to capture the relationship between NCEP data on potential predictors (i.e feature vectors) and the predictand. Grid search procedure is used to find the optimum range for each of the parameters. Subsequently, the optimum values of parameters are obtained from the selected ranges, using the stochastic search technique of genetic algorithm. The SVM model is subsequently validated, and then used to obtain projections of predictand for simulations of CGCM3. Results show that precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and cloud cover are projected to increase in future for A1B, A2 and B1 scenarios, whereas no trend is discerned with theCOMMIT. The projected increase in predictands is high for A2 scenario and is least for B1 scenario. The wind speed is not projected to change in future for the study region for all the aforementioned scenarios. The solar radiation is projected to decrease in future for A1B, A2 and B1 scenarios, whereas no trend is discerned with the COMMIT. To assess the monthly streamflow responses to climate change, two methodologies are considered in this study namely (i) downscaling and disaggregating the meteorological variables for use as inputs in SWAT and (ii) directly downscaling streamflow using SVM. SWAT is a physically based, distributed, continuous time hydrological model that operates on a daily time scale. The hydrometeorologic variables obtained using SVM downscaling models are disaggregated to daily scale by using k-nearest neighbor method developed in this study. The other inputs to SWAT are DEM, land use/land cover map, soil map, which are considered to be the same for the present and future scenarios. The SWAT model has projected an increase in future streamflows for A1B, A2 andB1 scenarios, whereas no trend is discerned with the COMMIT. The monthly projections of streamflow at river basin scale are also obtained using two SVM based downscaling models. The first SVM model (called one-stage SVM model) considered feature vectors prepared based on monthly values of large scale atmospheric variables as inputs, whereas the second SVM model (called two-stage SVM model) considered feature vectors prepared from the monthly projections of cardinal variables as inputs. The trend in streamflows projected using two-stage SVM model is found to be similar to that projected by SWAT for each of the scenarios considered. The streamflow is not projected to change for any of the scenarios considered with the one-stage SVM downscaling model. The relative performance of the SWAT and the two SVM downscaling models in simulating observed streamflows is evaluated. In general, all the three models are able to simulate the streamflows well. Nevertheless, the performance of SWAT model is better. Further, among the two SVM models, the performance of one-stage streamflow downscaling model is marginally better than that of the two-stage streamflow downscaling model.
URI: http://etd.iisc.ernet.in/handle/2005/888
Appears in Collections:Civil Engineering (civil)

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