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Title: A Study Of Four Problems In Nonlinear Vibrations via The Method Of Multiple Scales
Authors: Nandakumar, K
Advisors: Chatterjee, Anindya
Keywords: Nonlinear Vibrations
Harmonic Oscillator
Method of Multiple-Scales (MMS)
Van der Pol Oscillator
Oscillator - Nonlinear Dynamics
Tool Vibration Model
Rotors - Dymamics
Nonlinear Overhung Rotor Model
Homoclinic Point
Overhung Rotor
Submitted Date: Aug-2009
Series/Report no.: G23530
Abstract: This thesis involves the study of four problems in the area of nonlinear vibrations, using the asymptotic method of multiple scales(MMS). Accordingly, it consists of four sequentially arranged parts. In the first part of this thesis we study some nonlinear dynamics related to the amplitude control of a lightly damped, resonantly forced, harmonic oscillator. The slow flow equations governing the evolution of amplitude and phase of the controlled system are derived using the MMS. Upon choice of a suitable control law, the dynamics is represented by three coupled ,nonlinear ordinary differential equations involving a scalar free parameter. Preliminary study of this system using the bifurcation analysis package MATCONT reveals the presence of Hopf bifurcations, pitchfork bifurcations, and limit cycles which seem to approach a homoclinic orbit. However, close approach to homoclinic orbit is not attained using MATCONT due to an inherent limitation of time domain-based continuation algorithms. To continue the limit cycles closer to the homoclinic point, a new algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm works in phase space with an ordered set of points on the limit cycle, along with spline interpolation. The algorithm incorporates variable stretching of arclength based on local curvature, through the use of an auxiliary index-based variable. Several numerical examples are presented showing favorable comparisons with MATCONT near saddle homoclinic points. The algorithm is also formulated with infinitesimal parameter increments resulting in ordinary differential equations, which gives some advantages like the ability to handle fold points of periodic solution branches upon suitable re-parametrization. Extensions to higher dimensions are outlined as well. With the new algorithm, we revisit the amplitude control system and continue the limit cycles much closer to the homoclinic point. We also provide some independent semi-analytical estimates of the homoclinic point, and mention an a typical property of the homoclinic orbit. In the second part of this thesis we analytically study the classical van der Pol oscillator, but with an added fractional damping term. We use the MMS near the Hopf bifurcation point. Systems with (1)fractional terms, such as the one studied here, have hitherto been largely treated numerically after suitable approximations of the fractional order operator in the frequency domain. Analytical progress has been restricted to systems with small fractional terms. Here, the fractional term is approximated by a recently pro-posed Galerkin-based discretization scheme resulting in a set of ODEs. These ODEs are then treated by the MMS, at parameter values close to the Hopf bifurcation. The resulting slow flow provides good approximations to the full numerical solutions. The system is also studied under weak resonant forcing. Quasiperiodicity, weak phase locking, and entrainment are observed. An interesting observation in this work is that although the Galerkin approximation nominally leaves several long time scales in the dynamics, useful MMS approximations of the fractional damping term are nevertheless obtained for relatively large deviations from the nominal bifurcation point. In the third part of this thesis, we study a well known tool vibration model in the large delay regime using the MMS. Systems with small delayed terms have been studied extensively as perturbations of harmonic oscillators. Systems with (1) delayed terms, but near Hopf points, have also been studied by the method of multiple scales. However, studies on systems with large delays are few in number. By “large” we mean here that the delay is much larger than the time scale of typical cutting tool oscillations. The MMS up to second order, recently developed for such large-delay systems, is applied. The second order analysis is shown to be more accurate than first order. Numerical integration of the MMS slow flow is much faster than for the original equation, yet shows excellent accuracy. A key point is that although certain parameters are treated as small(or, reciprocally, large), the analysis is not restricted to infinitesimal distances from the Hopf bifurcation. In the present analysis, infinite dimensional dynamics is retained in the slow flow, while the more usual center manifold reduction gives a planar phase space. Lower-dimensional dynamical features, such as Hopf bifurcations and families of periodic solutions, are also captured by the MMS. The strong sensitivity of the slow modulation dynamics to small changes in parameter values, peculiar to such systems with large delays, is seen clearly. In the last part of this thesis, we study the weakly nonlinear whirl of an asymmetric, overhung rotor near its gravity critical speed using a well known two-degree of freedom model. Gravity critical speeds of rotors have hitherto been studied using linear analysis, and ascribed to rotor stiffness asymmetry. Here we present a weakly nonlinear study of this phenomenon. Nonlinearities arise from finite displacements, and the rotor’s static lateral deflection under gravity is taken as small. Assuming small asymmetry and damping, slow flow equations for modulations of whirl amplitudes are developed using the MMS. Inertia asymmetry appears only at second order. More interestingly, even without stiffness asymmetry, the gravity-induced resonance survives through geometric nonlinearities. The gravity resonant forcing does not influence the resonant mode at leading order, unlike typical resonant oscillations. Nevertheless, the usual phenomena of resonances, namely saddle-node bifurcations, jump phenomena and hysteresis, are all observed. An unanticipated periodic solution branch is found. In the three dimensional space of two modal coefficients and a detuning parameter, the full set of periodic solutions is found to be an imperfect version of three mutually intersecting curves: a straight line, a parabola, and an ellipse. To summarize, the first and fourth problems, while involving routine MMS involve new applications with rich dynamics. The second problem demonstrated a semi-analytical approach via the MMS to study a fractional order system. Finally, the third problem studied a known application in a hitherto less-explored parameter regime through an atypical MMS procedure. In this way, a variety of problems that showcase the utility of the MMS have been studied in this thesis.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2005/950
Appears in Collections:Mechanical Engineering (mecheng)

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